100th annivesary of the Russian revolution

Today is 100th anniversary of the Russian revolution.

The revolution was on 25th of October in Julian (old) calendar that was used in imperial Russia. Or on 7th of November in Gregorian (new) calendar. The Russian Revolution of 1917 involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Soviet Russia under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. It sparked the beginning of a new era in Russia that had effects on countries around the world. The event also sparked declarations of independence of several states, civil war in Russia and wars against some newly created states.

Finland declared independence on December 6th, 1917. Ukrainian's people republic declared independence on 25th of January of 1918. Lithuania - on February 16th, 1918. Republic of Estonia - February 23rd, 1918.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed between new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and Central Powers (Germany, Astro-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman empire) on 3rd of March, 1918 ending Russia's participation in WWI.

Belarusian People's republic declared independence on March 25th, 1918. Democratic Republic of Georgia - on May 26th 1918. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic - on May 28th , 1918. The First Armenian Republic - on May 28th , 1918. The Second Polish republic - on November 11th, 1918. Republic of Latvia - on November 18th, 1918.

Out of these states most successful were Finland having no direct confrontation with Soviet Russia, while Poland was able to fight Soviet Russia. Three Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) also remained independent till 1939.
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Comments

  • Merry Revolution and Happy New Revolution!


  • edited November 7
    How different the world would be if all these countries had succeeded in their goal of independence. 

    The priest that baptized my father fought for the "Whites" in the Russian Civil War. This is his story:

    In 1918, Father Znamensky was a lieutenant in the Russian Czarist 
    White Army. He was wounded in the left leg while directing the 
    placement of a machine gun and was captured.

    I found an interview he did while researching my family history.
    Here is what he had to say:

    "Each night they would take out 60 or 70 persons and execute them," 
    he said. "Everyone, myself included, was waiting his turn." 

    Father Znamesky was an exceptional singer. 
    He received vocal training while in seminary in Samara, Russia. 
    His singing saved him.

    His Bolshevik captors, hearing his bass baritone, 
    offered him a job teaching their children and organizing a choir. 

    In the summer of 1921, while his troupe was performing in Chita in 
    eastern Russia, Znamensky escaped and entered Manchuria. 
    He sang with opera companies in Harbin, Manchuria, for three years. 
    In 1924, he joined a Ukrainian opera company and toured China.

    Left jobless in Shanghai, he signed on as a seaman with ships 
    belonging to Canada, and finally made his way to Los Angeles, California. 
    He sang in Hollywood movies until his local priest encouraged 
    him to return to the priesthood. 

    Finally, he was assigned to the church in my local area. 
  • @Karpivna

    >How different the world would be if all these countries had succeeded in their goal of independence.

    Even more interesting about the world if WWI did not start. Entire central and eastern Europe were made up of German empire, Russian empire and Austro-Hungarian empire. Exceptions were Bulgaria and Serbia;they were independent states since 1878 after Russo-Turkish war.
  • I also regret the fact Russian royal family was murdered by the Bolshevik. Nicholas II , his wife empress Alexandra. His four daughters : Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia. His son (heir to the throne) Alexei.

    Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917. The revolution occurred in October 1917, while royal family was murdered on 17th of June, 1918 . There was no need to execute royal family, as Nicholas II already relinquished his monarchial authority 18 months earlier. Nicholas II pardoned many of those revolutionary Bolsheviks during his rule.
  • edited November 7
    Prince Alexei was great grandson of British Queen Victoria on his Mum's (Alexandra) side. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemophilia_in_European_royalty#/media/File:Haemophilia_of_Queen_Victoria_-_family_tree_by_shakko.jpg


    Alexei was 1/32 Russian only. Nicholas was 1/16 Russian. Nicholas's wife Alexandra was half British, half German from Germany.

    Nicholas's children were murdered by the Bolsheviks 18 months after he relinquished his throne. The Bolsheviks were blood thirsty.

    http://adfave.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/fs-606-1170x630.jpg


    <img src="http://adfave.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/fs-606-1170x630.jpg">




  • edited November 7
    @Sviatogor One of my favorite "Slavic" books I own is Nicholas & Alexandra: The Last Imperial Family Of Tsarist Russia. It was produced by the State Hermitage Museum and the State Archive of the Russian Federation. It was printed in English and published in America in 1998,

    It is a beautiful, large size, hardcover full of photos, some rare. Over 400 pages. Even Royal baby hair is still preserved and the book includes photos!


    "Unless you heed the voices of those who know the state in which Russia finds herself ... the result will be utter despair." Thus was Tsar Nicholas II advised in 1913, to no avail.

    The decent but pathetic and none too brilliant monarch was brutally murdered in the summer of 1918, along with his nervous wife, Alexandra (who had fallen under the spell of the wild-eyed peasant monk Rasputin), and their five children.

    On the cover of this ambitious--and completely successful--book is a formal portrait of the ethereally beautiful royal family, in delicate finery and pearls; on the back, a shot of their mass grave, a bleak field in the middle of nowhere.

    As the catalog of a huge exhibition drawn from the State Hermitage Museum and the State Archive of the Russian Federation, this book is filled with color plates of the sumptuous trappings of court life in turn-of-the-century Russia: jeweled Fabergé eggs, coronation paintings, Russian icons, satin ball gowns, soldiers' uniforms, crowns, and other treasures. But the soul of the book is the archival material: royal-family photos, political documents, telegrams, letters between Nicholas and Alexandra, locks of royal baby hair, and grisly eye-witness accounts of the Romanoffs' murders, as told by those who did the deed.

    More than 100 curators, historians, and art historians have created this lengthy, comprehensive book detailing the beginnings of what Mikhail Piotrovsky, director of the State Hermitage Museum, calls "the tragedy of 20th-century Russia." Yet it reads like a fatal thriller, one with opulence, evil, and error at its core."

    This volume draws on a wealth of previously unpublished material to tell the tragic story of the last of the Romanovs as it has never been told before. With more than 630 irreplaceable works of art, costumes, photographs, and private and state documents, and drawing from Nicholas and Alexandra's own personal letters and diaries, it reveals their luxurious world and loving family life - and the horrors of their final years - in moving and compelling detail. Nicholas & Alexandra accompanies an exhibition of the largest collection of imperial family treasures ever to leave Russia. Then, in reproductions of original documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the private world of Nicholas and Alexandra is unveiled. 

    Image result for nicholas and alexandra The Last Imperial Family of Tsarist Russia book abrams publishing


  • edited November 7
    Okay, Nicholas II was not a brilliant politician. The country expected reforms of him. He gave up so much power to the parliament (Duma) and other institutions after 1905. He relinquished his throne and powers in February 1917 to provisional government. I see no reason killing him and his family 18 months later. Alexandra was under spell of Rasputin because he helped her ill son Alexei several times. Alexei inherited genetic disease haemophilia (problems with blood clotting) from his great grandmother Britain's Queen Victoria. Several roylties across Europe inherited this disease from Queen Victoria : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemophilia_in_European_royalty








  • edited November 7
    It was cruel to murder that family.  :(  I can't believe Hemophilia still is an incurable condition.

    The authors of the new study, led by Evgeny Rogaev of the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Lomonosov Moscow State University in Russia, sampled bones found in the Ural Mountains in 2007 now known to belong to the son of Russian Empress Alexandra (Victoria's granddaughter), Crown Prince Alexei, and one of his sisters. 


    Using sequencing and amplification techniques, the investigators were able to obtain gene sequences from the 91-year-old material. They found a mutation that would have led to an "abnormal splicing site" on the factor IX gene, a tale-tell sign of hemophilia B, which is far more rare than hemophilia A and now appears to be extinct in the European royal lines. Hemophilia A is a clotting factor VIII deficiency (factor VIII assists with blood coagulation), while hemophilia B is a clotting factor IX deficiency (factor IX is an enzyme in the coagulation system). 


    It wasn't, however, hemophilia B that killed the Russian prince and his sister—likely Anastasia—rumored to have escaped the Bolshevik revolutionaries who assassinated the other Romanovs in 1918. After the remains of two individuals were discovered in the Ural Mountains, Rogaev analyzed fragments of bone and traced the genetic lineage back to the same immediate Romanov family. His findings (published in February in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) confirmed that the remains indeed were those of the last two Romanov children and that, like their family members who had been discovered in 1991, they had been murdered. Had the family survived, however, they may have continued passing on the disease to future generations, the new pathogenic analysis shows. 

    https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/queen-victorias-curse-new-dna-evidence-solves-medical-and-murder-mysteries/


  • edited November 7
    Giving up a lot of power to peasants is always a bad move, pardoning captured revolutionaries even worse. It had to end like that for the Romanov family.
  • edited November 8
    @Shaokang

    He gave up power in in February 17th to the provisional government consisted of upper class people many of whom he appointed himself earlier. They were the elite of Russia. It's the provisional government of Russia that lost power to the Bolsheviks in October 25th (Novermenber 7th)

    ---

    The Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma and was led first by Prince Georgy Lvov and then by Alexander Kerensky. It replaced the institution of the Council of Ministers of Russia, members of which after the February Revolution presided in the Chief Office of Admiralty.[citation needed] At the same time the Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in favor of the Grand Duke Michael who agreed that he would accept after the decision of Russian Constituent Assembly.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Provisional_Government

    ---
    For example , prince (князь) Georgy Lvov was from the dynasty of Rurikid https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Львов,_Георгий_Евгеньевич
    Alexander Kerensky probably one of the most detrimental person responsible for many problems in the governments during WWI. He escaped Russia after Bolsheviks came to power settling in Paris. After WWII began he settled in New York.

    Both of them were in government long before the trouble started in Russia (after Russia entered WWI).

  • edited November 8
    This topic reopened my Romanov obsession.  :D  I've been watching videos and reading internet articles about the Romanovs and the Bolsheviks all evening! 

    I just finished reading this article from an American magazine for rich society people, called "Town & Country." It is said the Bolshevik assassins of the Romanovs were mostly Jews. Were the Bolsheviks really a Jewish revolutionary organization? Or, is this just a conspiracy theory???

    http://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/tradition/a8072/russian-tsar-execution/
  • edited November 8
    @Karpivna
    I don't know who was responsible. I know there were a lot of Jews among Bolshevik leaders and rulers of Soviet Russia.

    Trotsky, Bucharin, Sverdlov, Larin, Lunacharsky, Zinovyev, Radek and many others. Often, they changed their given and last names, so they sounded Russian.
  • It looks like among 3 persons who were responsible for execution of Romanovs 2 people were Jews : Shay-Philip Goloshchekin and Yakov Yurovsky.

    Many Bolsheviks who opposed religion (eastern Orthodoxy) were also of Jewish descent.

    http://rushist.com/index.php/historical-notes/1729-bolsheviki-i-evrei

  • I could understand the Bolsheviks if they had something against Nicholas II, whom he pardoned on many occasions. Кilling his daughters...In medieval times  children were often pardoned. The Bolsheviks were blood thirsty from the beginning.

    Daughters of Nicholas II (Grand Duchesses). From left to right  : Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia. In the middle is Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna - their mother.


    httpicpicslivejournalcomnngan2143325310572181057218_originaljpg



  • Those beautiful princesses and their mama. How could the Bolsheviks kill them, I will never understand. 
  • I recommend this forum for people obsessed with the Romanovs (like me): http://forum.alexanderpalace.org/
  • edited November 9
    @Karpivna

    Thanks for the URL .

    Nicholas II had  a good family.  From information of Nicholas's daughters dairies, they led modest lifestyles for daughters of a monarch.  It appears they didn't have luxuries many  modern day children of oligarchs or rich people have . Nicholas's daughters were brought up that way on purpose. Olga, Tatiana, Maria (I don't know about Anastasia - youngest daughter) volunteered as nurses to dress soldiers' wounds in hospitals during WWI. Maria (she was third child) recalled she would sit near beds of soldiers chatting with them about anything. She wished she could dress wounds as her two older sisters Olga and Tatiana. Maria was a bubbly character and  good looking. She was popular with guards and others.


  • edited November 9
    @Sviatogor Yes, they were a wonderful, loving family, which makes their murders even more heart-breaking. They were not evil people. They could have been exiled somewhere, but even Nicholas' cousin, King George, would not take them. There were fears Russia's troubles could spill over into Western Europe if the Romanovs were living there. Which is probably true. They would have been hunted by KGB most likely.

    King George V made the choice not to allow the Russian Czar to have refuge in England after the 1917 revolution. The King believed this was a necessary evil to prevent radicals and anarchists from using the Czar’s arrival to rally workers around revolutionary causes in Great Britain and Ireland. The Czar was seen by many, and by socialists in particular, as a tyrant. The King wanted to be seen as an enlightened monarch and decided he could not risk appearing as the benefactor of his deposed cousin.
  • edited November 9
    Romanov family had relatives in European Royal families. Most  European monarchs were related to Nicholas's  family.  Nicholas's uncle  was a King of Greece at the time. King of Greece was uncle on Nicholas's Mum's side - Dagmar of Denmark.  Nicholas's wife - Alexandra -  was from Germany. Russia was engaged in war against Germany during  WWII, so Germany was not an option.   Nicholas had uncles, aunts, grandparents in Denmark (his Mum was Dane). Denmark was too close to Germany at the time.

    George V offered refuge to Nicholas's family before the Bolsheviks came to power  in April-May of 1917 if memory serves me correctly. George's politicians advised him not to accept the family for some reason. Royalties around Europe did not know the bloody nature of the Bolsheviks, otherwise any European Royal family would accept Nicholas's family.  Dagmar and Alexandra (Mums of Nicholas and George) were  close sisters visiting each other often. They dressed similarly delighting public in England and Russia, and Denmark.  George V and Nicholas II knew each other from childhood.

    I have many unanswered questions. Even if no-one accepted Romanov's family , and they were  expelled to Tobolsk (western Siberia), why no White officer took them to the far east of Russia or Harbin, or Japan, where so many 'Whites' who supported "Tsar' , went? Instead, Romanov's family was sent to Ekaterinburg where entire family together with servants wас executed in summer of 1918.

  • Empress of Russia Maria Fyodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) outlived her son Nicholas II dying at the age of 81in 1928 .

    Before Nicholas II was born.

    Dagmar of Denmark was engaged to older brother of  Alexander III.  Alexander III was father of Nicholas II. The older brother  ( heir to the throne) was also named Nicholas. He died from meningitis on his trip to southern Italy. Dagmar was devastated finding about the death of her fiancé. In those days royalties married members of royal families and finding a match for a child, especially for a heir to throne was difficult.  It took a lot of effort for both families (in Russia and Denmark) to persuade Dagmar to marry Alexander III , who was younger brother of Nicholas. The first-born son (heir to the throne ) of Dagmar and Alexander III was given the name Nicholas (in honour to his uncle)? This child would become future Russian emperor known as Nicholas II.



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