Double-cross symbolized Slovakia (or Slovak counties) in the Kingdom of Hungary. It stands on three mountains Tatra, Matra, Fatra (Slovakia is a mountainous land, while Hungary is mostly lowland).


Also known as the Patriarchal cross.

A theory (by slovakian historians) says that the double cross arrived to the part of the Hungarian Kingdom (current-day Slovakia) during the 9th century mission of Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia. Though used frequently in Great Moravia, it was not a state symbol at that time, because there were no state symbols in the modern sense in Europe at that time yet. By means of Zwentibold (the ruler of Lorraine, son of the German emperor Arnulf of Carinthia and godchild of the Great Moravian king Svatopluk I), this symbol got to Lorraine and is called the cross of Lorraine there.

Unlike the Catholic cross, the symbolism and meaning of the double cross is not well understood. One interpretation is that the first horizontal line symbolized the secular power and the other horizontal line the ecclesiastic power of Byzantine emperors. Another that the first cross represents the death and the second cross the resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the Byzantine Empire of the 9th century, the double cross was a political symbol used by Byzantine clerks and missionaries.