Wilkolak, what do you think of the Grand Principality or Duchy of Lithuania or Litva? Was it originally today's Lithuanian or Belarusian state? I started to interest into it and I read articles mainly from 2 points of view – the Lithuanian and Belarusian one. Lithuanians say the Duchy of Lithuania was ethnically their state and they conquered and joined Belarus. On the other hand Belarusians say the Principality of Litva had important Slavic attributes – the capital was Navahrudak, a city southwesterly from Minsk; official language was Old Belarusian /called Ruthenian/ first of all; Belarusians, called Litvini then, conquered today's Lithuania (before called  Samogitia – Jamoitia, Zhmudz') and joined it to Litva (Belarus) later etc etc…

Btw. there is a castle in Slovakia, which is called Lietava, in older form Litwa. The legend says, there was a wooden sanctuary of the Goddess Lada. Later it was rebuilt to the Gothic church and then to the castle.

The story of Pahonia reminds me Slovak state symbol's story a little bit. Roots of the double-cross officially originate in the early medieval state Greater Moravia. Then it was used by kings of the Regnum Marianum (later Kingdom of Hungary) but only by those who were previously the princes of the Nitrianske údelné kniežatstvo (relatively independent Slovakia in Kingdom of Hungary till the beginning of the 12. century). Double-cross became a symbol of Slovakia / Windischland in German / Ducatus Sclavoniae in Latin or simply Upperland in the new state Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian did not mean Magyar, it described citizenship rather than nationality. In the time of revolution /19.cent./ Magyars adopted name Hungarians to describe their ethnic group in foreign languages, but not in theirs – there are exclusively Magyars, never Hungarians. Slovak and Czech language distinguish these terms : Hungarian – Uhor, Magyar – Maďar). So, the double-cross became an exclusively symbol of Slovensko / Slovakia or Biele Uhorsko (White Hungary); and the so-called Arpad's stripes represent today's Magyarorszag / Hungary or Čierne Uhorsko (Black Hungary). After the 1WW and break-up of the kingdom, Hungary have kept the symbol of Slovakia – the double-cross with 3 mountains (Tatra, Matra, Fatra) – in their new coat-of-arms. But it is only one of more succession states of the Kingdom of Hungary.


Dervan, it's probably because of double-cross in the original coat-of-arms. The same almost happened to my country, when communists replaced the double-cross with a fire (1960 to 1990). About Macedonia I'm not sure.


Fortunately, double-cross was given back to us. And it probably has deeper than Christian roots, as in case of Pahonia which represents Jarilo – the god of the sun, spring, fertility, and love. Slovak double-cross could be a protective symbol of Goddess Morena – a rune Mara. Morena isn't any negative deity, she rather represents new beginning, arrival of the spring. She doesn't die by the feast Burning of Morena http://www.slavorum.com/index.php/topic,397.0.html, but she leaves this world and comes again next year to bring the winter. Mother Morena, the Protector.