Several Russian populations, Poles and Czechs.

Title: A Genome-Wide Analysis of Populations from European Russia Reveals a New Pole of Genetic Diversity in Northern Europe, Khrunin AV, Khokhrin DV, Filippova IN, Esko T, Nelis M, et al. (2013)
Full Text: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058552.g003&representation=PNG_M


Several studies examined the fine-scale structure of human genetic variation in Europe. However, the European sets analyzed represent mainly northern, western, central, and southern Europe. Here, we report an analysis of approximately 166,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in populations from eastern (northeastern) Europe: four Russian populations from European Russia, and three populations from the northernmost Finno-Ugric ethnicities (Veps and two contrast groups of Komi people). These were compared with several reference European samples, including Finns, Estonians, Latvians, Poles, Czechs, Germans, and Italians. The results obtained demonstrated genetic heterogeneity of populations living in the region studied. Russians from the central part of European Russia (Tver, Murom, and Kursk) exhibited similarities with populations from central–eastern Europe, and were distant from Russian sample from the northern Russia (Mezen district, Archangelsk region). Komi samples, especially Izhemski Komi, were significantly different from all other populations studied. These can be considered as a second pole of genetic diversity in northern Europe (in addition to the pole, occupied by Finns), as they had a distinct ancestry component. Russians from Mezen and the Finnic-speaking Veps were positioned between the two poles, but differed from each other in the proportions of Komi and Finnic ancestries. In general, our data provides a more complete genetic map of Europe accounting for the diversity in its most eastern (northeastern) populations.

Principal Component Analysis in Diagram 1; ADMIXTURE in Diagram 2; Fixation Index (Fst) in Diagram 3


Four Russian populations (Tver, Murom, Kursk, Mezen district, Archangel oblast')
, Finns (samples from Helsinki (n = 100) and Kuusamo (n = 84), Estonians (n = 100), Latvians (n = 95), Poles (n = 48), Czechs (n = 94), and Germans (n = 100). In addition, we used free genotype data from the HapMap 3 project (Italians from Tuscany (n = 88) and Han Chinese from Beijing (n = 78) and as well as from the human genome diversity panel HGDP, Russians (n = 25)


Diagram 1 Principal component analysis of the combined autosomal genotypic data of individuals from Russia and seven European countries (Finnland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany and Italy.

[img width=700 height=619]http://s21.postimg.org/6pawkhkjb/russiangwafig3.png” />

Diagram 2 ADMIXTURE clustering of individuals from the populations studied. Each individual is represented by a vertical line composed of colored segments, in which each segment represents the proportion of an individual’s ancestry derived from one of the K ancestral populations. Individuals are grouped by population (labeled on the bottom of the graph).

[img width=482 height=700]http://s16.postimg.org/ur5jyescl/russiangwaadmixk2k8.png” />

Diagram 3

[img width=700 height=247]http://s23.postimg.org/g0i99gv2j/russiangwafigs7.png” />