Slovak doesn’t work this way. Words are always pronounced the same. I mean, you can change the pitch and pronounce it whatever you like, but it doesn’t change the meaning of words. There are some pairs of words that are different only in the length of 1 vowel, for example, but it doesn’t mean that Slovak is a tonal language.
And we don’t use articles. Whether we talk about specific things or in general, we deduce it from the context.
However, there’s a workaround that simulates the use of articles, like English does: you can use pronouns such as “some”, “my” or “that” to describe things.
1. Jablko spadlo na zem.
1. [no article ] Apple fell to the ground.
2. Nejaké jablko spadlo na zem.
2. Some apple fell to the ground. / An apple fell to the ground.
3. To jablko spadlo na zem.
3. That apple fell to the ground. / The apple fell to the ground.
When you don’t use an “article” in Slovak, the sentence works based on the knowledge of the reader or the person you’re communicating with. For example, you’re standing next to an apple tree with your friend. An apple falls down from the tree and you say the sentence “Apple fell to the ground.” Your friend saw that too, so he knows that some apple fell down and he knows what apple it was. So the sentence works like if you used definite article in English.
But if your friend wasn’t there and he came after it happened, so he doesn’t know about the apple and you tell him the sentence, then it works like if you used indefinite article in English.
By the way, what do è, ê and ē sound like?
PS: Sorry if I used articles incorrectly.