What does that thing on top of “a” stand for?

It’s a long vowel. You spell long vowels a little longer than short vowels. Just click on the play button in the Google Translate. :D
Slovak is pretty consistent in its orthography, when it comes to accented characters. Whenever you see that little line above a letter, you pronounce the sound longer. Only vowels Á, É, Í, Ó, Ú and liquids Ĺ and Ŕ have a modified length in Slovak. All other sounds are pronounced shortly.

In Slovak there’s a rule of “rhythm”, that short and long syllables should go one after another, like short-long-short-long-short….. It doesn’t always work, but you’ll see plenty of long syllables when reading Slovak text or listening to it.
“Inteligentná” is a borrowing from a non-Slavic language, so I guess it’s one of the reasons why 4 short syllables appear next to each other in the word.

Edit: Oh, “žena” is also 2 short vowels next to each other. As I said, it doesn’t always work. :D


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