Maybe but more likely not.
Immediately to the north of Chuvashes live culturally related Finno-Ugric Mari
To south-west lives Finno-Ugric Mordva – Erzya and Moksha
To the west lived historic Finno-Ugric Muroma
To the north-west historic Finno-Ugric Merja
Between 7th-13th centuries existed Volga Bulgaria on the territories of present day Chuvashia and Tatarstan, after being pushed by Khazars. If Volga Bulgars were Iranic speakers they would have left a significant Iranic impact on languages and cultures of Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars. There’s little if any Iranic influence on Chuvashes’ and Tatars’ languages and cultures.
Chuvashes speak Oghur language.
Just after Volga Bulgaria adopted Islam Arab traveler Ahmad Ibn Fadlan visited Volga Bulgaria meeting the ruler of Volga Bulgars in 921-922. In his notes Ibn Fadlan wrote a number of words used by people in Volga Bulgaria in Arab alphabet. Perhaps some words by the ruler himself? The words are Turkic in origin with many equivalent found in modern Chuvash language.
If the languages of Khazars and Huns maybe a subject of debate, then the language of Volga Bulgars is a foregone conclusion. It was Turkic. Most will not question the origin of the language of Volga Bulgars in Russia, Tatarstan, Chuvashia. Maybe _certain_ scholars in Bulgaria have doubts?