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    So let me procced. In this part i will be talking about Bukovništvo.

    As i said Carinthia was most important of Slovene lands and Carinthia is considered a cradle of Slovene people. Carinthian Slovenes were economicaly and politicaly most powerful among Slovenes. But it was cultural aspect which was most important about Carinthian Slovenes. As was said in part 1 many peasants were freeborn and had special priviledges. Carinthia was rich land, besides no taxes they also had right to trade. Main trading was done with Venetian Republic through Kanalska dolina (german Kanaltal, italian Val Canale). Kanalska dolina was part of Duchy of Carinthia until 1918.

    This gave them prosperity. With more economic power came the rise of culture. This rise of culture among Carinthian Slovenes is most evident in form of Bukovništvo. Name Bukovništvo comes from old Slovene word Bukva (book). People who were part of Bukovništvo movement are called Bukovniki. They were called Bukovniki becouse they could read and write in Latin. In Slovene language Latin was at that time called Bukovski or Bukovski jezik.

    Bukovništvo started in area around Podklošter (german Arnoldstein) and spreaded throughout all Slovene lands, however it remained strongest in Carinthia.

    Bukovništvo is movement and cultural phenomenon that started in 16th century. In this movement peasants began to write down religious and even non-religious texts. Normaly this was job for monks however in Slovene speaking parts of Carinthia peasants did it, which is realy special case in this region. Motto and motivation of Bukovniki was Help yourself and God will help you.

    Some Bukovniki books;
    [img width=700 height=523]http://www.bajta.si/images/stories/prnas/2010/12/bukovniki/bukovniki62.jpg”/>

    Bukovniki were copying and writing religious books becouse they belived that with writing religious texts they would get more in touch with God. This movement started with Protestantism in 16th century. Many were Protestants, however there were also Catholic Bukovniki. Bukovništvo existed for 400 years and has three phases;

    First phase is from 16th-17th century and is called copyist period. These men copyed Latin texts and added Slovene oral tradition to the texts.

    Second phase from 17th-18th century is called translator period. They were translating and editing texts from mainly German and Latin into Slovene language.

    Third phase begins towards the end of 18th century. This is so called creative period. In this period they were making their own texts and it existed until first half of 20th century.

    Bukovniki were highly esteemed among other people and played important role in their village. They were mainly peasants but there were also artisans among their ranks. Bukovniki were also village musicians, singers, story-tellers and story writers. In most cases they played citre. Citre are slovene zithers.

    Slovene zithers were always Bordunske citre (drone zithers), Violinske citre or Šenterije however sadly today they arent used anymore. Click this link to see how these instruments look like;http://www.etno-muzej.si/files/oc/ljudska_glasbila/pc095870.jpg , http://www.etno-muzej.si/files/oc/ljudska_glasbila/pc095871.jpg , http://www.etno-muzej.si/files/oc/ljudska_glasbila/em%207230_psalterij%20%283%29.jpg , image

    So in this sense we can say that they were Slovene bards or troubadourors. Becouse of their musical skills they were always invited and payed by local villages to play on village festivities, weddings, births, burials etc. Bukovniki spended much time for books and music. Besides religious texts they also wrote stories and songs. Thats why they often didnt have alot of time for farming, so their wifes had to do all the hard work on the farm.  ;D

    Most famous Bukovniki texts are Kolomonov žegen (1740) and Duhovna bramba (1750) becouse they are superstitious in nature. Both texts are on the thin line with witchcraft. Kolomonov žegen is basicaly manual for soliders and tells us how to avoid death. Duhovna bramba is manual for pilgrims and teaches us how to travel on dry land and water. Some books of Bukovniki are also illustrated like Žegarjev antikrist and few books are even prophesies. However most books have religious texts and prayers.

    Altho books of first phase Bukovniki are preserved, their names are not known. So we know only names of second and third phase Bukovniki. Here is picture of Bukovnik from late 19th century playing citre;
    image

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