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  • #343779

    Anonymous

    Geography and Economy.
    http://www.rusyn.org/rusyns-geography.html

    *Carpathian Rus’, the territory inhabited by Carpatho-Rusyns, is located in the far eastern portion of central Europe; its geographical coordinates are 20.5?E to 24.38?E and 47.53?N to 49.35?N. The land mass covered by Carpathian Rus’ extends about 375 kilometers from the Poprad river valley of Slovakia and Poland in the northwest to the Viseu (Rusyn: Vyshova) river valley of Romania in the southeast. This area, which ranges from only 50 to 100 kilometers in width, encompasses the foothills and mountainous regions of the Eastern Carpathians. Among the rivers flowing through Rusyn-inhabited lands are, on the northern slopes of the mountains, the Biala, Ropa, and Wisloka, which are tributaries of the Vistula river, and the Wislok, Oslawa, and Solinka tributaries of the San River. On the southern slopes are the Torysa, Topl’a, Ondava, Laborec, Cirocha, Uzh, Latorytsia, Vicha, Borzhava, Rika, Tereblia, Teresva, Shopurka, Chorna Tysa, Bila Tysa, Viseu/Vyshova, Ruscova (Rusyn: Rus’kova), and Viseu, all of which flow directly or via tributaries into the Tisza (Rusyn: Tysa) river.

    According to present-day political boundaries, most of Carpathian Rus’ lies within Ukraine (the *Transcarpathian oblast). To the west it extends into Slovakia and, on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, into Poland; to the east it encompasses a small part of Romania along the lower Viseu river and its tributary, the Ruscova. Rusyn-inhabited territory in each of these countries has its own local name: the *Lemko Region (Rusyn: Lemkovyna) in southeastern Poland; the *Presov Region (Rusyn: Priashevshchyna or Priashivs’ka Rus’) in northeastern Slovakia; *Subcarpathian Rus’ (Rusyn: Podkarpats’ka Rus’) in far western Ukraine; and the *Maramures Region in northcentral Romania.

    For the most part, Carpathian Rus’ is a mountainous region. With the exception of the Western Beskyds all other ranges in Carpathian Rus’ are classified as part of the Eastern Carpathians (also known as the Forested, or Ukrainian Carpathians). The Eastern Carpathians comprise two distinct geological formations: the sedimentary Beskyds and the Volcanic Carpathians. These are subdivided into several ranges which generally form parallel longitudinal belts that stretch from the northwest to the southeast. The outermost belt, which is the highest in altitude, is located just beyond Carpathian Rus’ in southern Galicia and consists of the Middle Beskyds and the High Beskyds (which together in Polish are called the Bieszczady) and the Gorgany. The next belt is a mountain syncline known as the Mid-Carpathian Depression which in the far west forms a flat basin between the towns of Sanok and Gorlice. The main belt within Carpathian Rus’ proper is that of the Beskyds subdivided into the Western Beskyds (Polish: Beskid Sadecki) from the Upper Dunajec to the Topl’a rivers; the Lower Beskyds (Polish: Beskid Niski) to the Oslawa and Laborec rivers; and the Polonyna Beskyds, which stretch eastward from Poland and Slovakia through the length of Subcarpathian Rus’ and beyond. This range derives its name from the Carpathian upper mountain pastures known as the polonyna; the part of the range located in Poland referred to as the Western Bieszczady/Bieszczady Zachodnie. The Polonyna Beskyds become progressively higher toward the east and are characterized by several high massifs: Rivna, Borzhava, Krasna, Svydovets’ and Chornohora. Along the eastern edges of the Polonyna Beskyds are the Gorgany and Hutsul Alps.

    South of the Polonynna Beskyds is a long inner Carpathian valley that begins at the mouth of the Cirocha River in the west and continues southeastward to the large basin along the upper Tisza/Tysa River between Khust and Sighet. Along this valley’s southern flank are the Volcanic Carpathians, a belt that begins in the west with the Slanske Ridge and Zemplyn Highlands (Tokaj Hills) and continues with interruptions eastward through Subcarpathian Rus’ into the Maramures Region of northern Romania. The Volcanic Carpathians are crossed by several transverse river valleys which define several mountain clusters or massifs: Vihorlat in eastern Slovakia and Makovytsia, Syniak, Velykyi Dil, and Tupyi in Ukraine’s Transcarpathia.

    From the Slanske mountain ridge in Slovakia, along the far western edge of the Volcanic Carpathians, begins the Tysa Lowland. Known in Slovakia as the East Slovak plain (Vychodoslovenska rovina), it stretches eastward to encompass the southwestern corner of Ukraine’s Transcarpathia from Uzhhorod to Vynohradovo. The several long, tonguelike valleys that cut through the Volcanic Carpathians from the north find their outlet in the Tysa Lowland. This plain is dotted with knolls and isolated cones, the highest of which is Chorna Hora (568 m.) near Vynohradovo. The lowland itself has its own massifs such as the Zemplyn hills (400 m.) between the lower Hernad and Bodrog river valleys in northeastern Hungary and several others in Transcarpathia: Palanok (275 m.) on which Mukachevo castle sits just south of the city and Muzhiievo (367 m.) and Kosyny (224 m.) respectively east and west of Berehovo. These hillocks in southwestern Transcarpathia represent the volcanic remains of the old Pannonian Highland Massif, most of which was depressed during the Pliocene Epoch to form the Great Hungarian Basin. A part of the lowland is composed of alluvial sediment and remains of Neocene Epoch sandstone. The gently sloping and only moderately deep river valleys slow down the flow of the mountain water, resulting in the presence of lowland marshes. The largest of these is the Chornyi Mochar (Black Wetland) near Berehovo.

    The high upper river valleys and narrow gorges are filled with water from innumerable brooks, creeks, and riverlets. The water from all these eventually reaches the Tisza/Tysa River on the southern slopes of the Carpathians or the San and Vistula Rivers on the northern slopes. The uniquely beautiful Carpathian lakes were formed by ancient glaciers or by massive mountain floods. The best known are the Vihorlat and Synevyr lakes, each about 1000 meters above sea-level and each popularly referred to as Morske/Morskoe oko. Since the 1970s several dams have been built to create reservoirs, most especially in the upper river valleys of northeastern Slovakia (Cirocha, Domasa along the Ondava) and southeastern Poland (Solinka Lake where the Solinka River meets the San), as well as the large artificial Zemplinska Sirava lake south of the Vihorlat slopes in eastern Slovakia. As a result of these projects several Rusyn villages were displaced or destroyed.

    Several passes cut through the watershed crests of the Eastern Carpathians, and from time immemorial they have connected central Europe to eastern Europe. They include the Tylicz/Tylic (Rusyn: Tylych, 688 m.), Dukla/Dukl’a (Rusyn: Duklia, 502 m.), Lupkow/Lupkov (Rusyn: Lupkiv, 657 m.), Rus/Rusz (Rusyn: Rus’, 797 m.), Uzhok (889 m.), Verets’kyi (841 m.), Serednii/Middle Verets’kyi (839 m.), Volovets’ or Beskyd (1014 m.), Vyshkiv or Torun’ (988 m.), and Iablunets’ or Tatar (931 m.) passes. The highest mountain peaks are just over 2000 meters and are all located in the far eastern part of the Polonyna Beskyds: Hoverla (2060 m.), Pop Ivan (2026 m.), and Petros (2020 m.). The next highest peaks are in the Hutsul Alps in Ukraine (Pop Ivan, 1940 m.) and in Romania (Farcau, 1962 m.).

    The climate in Rusyn-inhabited territory is temperate and moderated by warm and moist winds from both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. There is rarely any extreme temperature variation, although the higher the elevations, the more severe the climate. The warm summer in the mountains lasts only two months and is much shorter than in the lowlands. Hence, when in the lowland plain orchards are already in bloom, in the oak forests and mountain slopes only the first buds are beginning to appear, while in the higher mountains the peaks are still covered with snow. Winter temperatures can fall to as low as -34?C in the mountains, while in the lowlands and foothills the temperature in January can be as high as +10C.

    The vegetation in Carpathian Rus’ is part of the central European geobotanical sphere and is divided into basically west-east horizontal zones, whose differences are determined by changes in elevation and microclimatic local landscape conditions. Intense human economic activity has over the centuries changed the territory’s fauna. On the lowland plains and foothills, where oak and elm forests once existed, all that remain are small islets of trees surrounded by agricultural land. The nearby foothills and lower mountain zones are covered with mixed beech and oak forests; most of the Beskyd ranges and Gorgany are covered with oak. The central and upper mountain zones (600 to 1300 m.) are covered by fir and spruce forests, which beyond the river valleys can grow at elevations reaching 1500 meters. Near the village of Ubl’a (on the Slovak side of the border with Ukraine) are remnants of ancient yew forests. Few extensive contiguous forest zones remain. The largest of these, near the high mountain meadows (polonyny), are covered with pine, Siberian spruce, and Eastern Carpathian rhododendron. Sub-alpine and alpine meadows (polonyny) cover most of the High Beskyds, Gorgany, and Polonyna Carpathian ranges.

    The fauna in Carpathian Rus’ includes a wide variety of mammals (63), birds (267), reptiles (10), and fish (50), many of which are not found in the neighboring lowlands or plateaus. Cut off from the forest zones of eastern Europe by the intermediary western Ukrainian mixed forest-steppe zone, the Eastern Carpathians consequently form a kind of mountain taiga zone that is home to Carpathian deer, forest wild-cats, Carpathian woodcocks, black crones, Carpathian white-backed woodpeckers, Carpathian black adders, mountain and Carpathian Triton salamanders, and river and rainbow trout, among others. As a result, the Carpathian mountain region is considered to form a distinct zoological zone.

    The Rusyn population has traditionally lived in rural villages. Throughout Carpathian Rus’, there are nearly 1,100 villages, most of which contain between 600 and 800 inhabitants. The settlement pattern as well as natural and man-made transportation networks have generally followed the north-south direction of the several valleys that cut across of the Carpathian ranges. The earliest towns and cities are virtually all on the periphery of Rusyn-inhabited territory. These include on the northern slopes of the Carpathian crests, Nowy Sacz, Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Krosno, and Sanok, and on the southeastern slopes, Stara L’ubovna, Bardejov, Presov, Humenne, Snina, Michalovce, Uzhhorod, Mukachevo, and Sighet. These places have traditionally been inhabited by peoples other than Rusyns, including *Slovaks, *Poles, *Jews, *Magyars, *Germans, and, in the case of Subcarpathian Rus’/Transcarpathia since the second half of the twentieth century, *Russians. Rusyns have also lived in these towns and cities, but almost always as a minority. Out-migration from villages has increased the number of Rusyns in all of these cities, especially after World War II. Nevertheless, even in Uzhhorod and Mukachevo, the cities with the highest number of Rusyns,, they represent only 67-68 percent of the inhabitants.

    Because of their location along valleys from which descend river routes and roads, the cities and towns have become the natural economic, political, educational, and cultural centers for the Rusyn population. Consequently, these “foreign” urban areas have functioned as “Rusyn centers,” even through Rusyns themselves have been numerically in the minority. The few towns located within Rusyn-inhabited areas—Svidnik, Medzilaborce, Velykyi Bereznyi, Svaliava, Irshava, Khust—have never had more than a few thousands inhabitants and have not been able to replace the “historic” Rusyn centers.

    The economy of Rusyn-inhabited lands is basically agricultural, and nearly 70 percent of the working population is still engaged in farming or in farm-related activity. The region, however, has traditionally been characterized by a shortage of arable land, so that on average only two-tenths of a hectare of land per person is available. The high population density in the lowland plains and foothills (110 persons per square kilometer), together with the lack of intensive agricultural practices, has resulted in what might be called an “agrarian famine,” and chronic rural overpopulation has led to extensive out-migration. Rusyns first emigrated to the Backa and Srem regions of southern Hungary (the *Vojvodina in today’s Yugoslavia) in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, then abroad to the United States and Canada during the four decades before World War I.

    The low level of industrialization in Rusyn-inhabited territory, a result of its marginal location in various states, has created large-scale unemployment, which in turn has led to large-scale migrant labor, whereby men are forced to seek seasonal employment. This was common during the decades before World War I, when Rusyns from all parts of Carpathian Rus’, including from the Lemko Region north of the mountain crests, worked on the fields during harvest season on Hungary’s lowland plains. This occurred even during the Communist era of “full employment,” when Rusyns from eastern Slovakia sought work in the Czech lands (Bohemia and Moravia), and Rusyns from Transcarpathia/Subcarpathian Rus’ went eastward to other parts of the Soviet Union. In the post-Communist era the unemployed from Subcarpathian Rus’ look for work in all neighboring countries, in particular Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. While it is true that during the final decades of Communist rule the Soviet and Czechoslovak regimes built factories in or near Rusyn-inhabited lands as part of their military-industrial complex, the collapse of those regimes and their command economies has resulted in numerous factory closings. At the same time, the workforce that had been imported from other parts of Ukraine and the Soviet Union has remained in Subcarpathian Rus’, thereby increasing local unemployment rates. The resolution of such problems depends on the implementation of changes in property law, restructuring the agricultural sector, and in promoting the creation of finishing and light industries.

    The geological evolution of the Eastern Carpathians and their present structure has allowed for the formation of more than 30 varieties of minerals, although less than half are being exploited. The band of Volcanic ranges is rich in several mineral ores applicable for industrial use, including zinc, lead, and gold. The discovery in the 1990s of gold deposits at Muzhiievo in Subcarpathian Rus’ resulted in the beginning of gold production, although the region itself has yet to see any financial gain or even new employment opportunities, since the miners used to extract the mineral are brought from eastern Ukraine.

    These same Volcanic ranges have an inexhaustible supply of building materials, such as andesite rock, sand, limestone, various sandstones, and clay. In the upper Tisza valley there are large veins of variously colored industrial marble, whose purity approaches that of carrara marble from Italy. The marble is extracted, however, in a most primitive and rapacious manner, that is, by using dynamite to blast it free. As a result, the marble is shattered and can only be used as crushed rock in the building of roads and as a mixture for cement. Subcarpathian Rus’ in particular has large coal reserves of the lignite variety, but it is not used sufficiently for industrial purposes, even though the region is weak in energy resources.

    The Rusyn-inhabited Carpathian foothills are rich in domestic salt. Salt veins stretch from as far as Presov (Solivar) in Slovakia through Khust in Subcarpathian Rus’ and further eastward, culminating in what for Europe are the unique salt deposits at Solotvyno. According to geological data, the Solotvyno salt field is in the form of an unevenly cut cone that measures 200 to 300 meters in height, 2,160 meters in length, and 1,700 meters in width. The vast majority of extracted salt is unprocessed and exported beyond the region. Solotvyno’s salt lake has medicinal properties similar in quality to the Dead Sea, while specially fitted rooms within the mine are used as centers for treating patients afflicted with asthma.

    Despite the natural beauty of Rusyn-inhabited lands in the Eastern Carpathians, the potential for recreation and tourism remains largely untapped. A few spas were established already in the late nineteenth century, such as at Krynica-Zdroj, Zlockie, and Wysowa in the Lemko Region; at Bardejovske Kupele in the Presov Region; and at Nelipyno, Kobylets’ka Poliana, and Solotvyno in Subcarpathian Rus’. During the Soviet period after World War II, a large number of spas with sanatoria were expanded or newly developed. Among the most popular were the sanatoria with facilities for medical treatment at Karpaty (based in the former Schonborn family manor house), Syniak, Poliana, Shaian, and Soimy. Nevertheless, of the estimate 400 mineral springs of various kinds throughout Carpathian Rus’, no more than a quarter of them are exploited. Some have been able to ship bottled mineral water abroad, including from Krynica-Zdroj in the Lemko Region, Sulin in the Presov Region, and Karpaty and Poliana in Subcarpathian Rus’.

    Forests remain the most important natural resource in Carpathian Rus’. Traditionally, however, the various states which have ruled the area have exploited the forests without any positive value or profit accruing to the local Rusyn inhabitants. In the Lemko Region, the forests were nationalized in the wake of the 1947 *Vistula Operation; to this day, they have not been returned to their original Lemko owners. In fact, most of the forested area in the Lemko Region has been declared by Poland to be off limits because it is now a national park. In Subcarpathian Rus’, forest use has been and is still characterized by rapacious stripping and uncontrolled exploitation. For instance, in the five-year period 1921-1925, a total of 514,000 cubic meters of wood were cut, while during 1991 alone as much as 1.7 million and in 1992 over 1.8 million cubic meters were cut. Since Ukraine’s independence in 1991, even forests that had been designated specifically to prevent erosion or to regulate the water balance, or that are located within “protected” zones and sanatoria, are being cut down. One result of such “economic practices” has been periodic flooding (1947, 1993, 1998, 2001), a phenomenon that before Soviet rule had rarely occurred on such large scale in Subcarpathian Rus’. For instance, in the fall of 1998 several mountain slopes collapsed, causing widespread suffering and damage to the lives and property of nearly one-third of Transcarpathia’s population.

    Another potentially valuable economic resource are vineyards located in Subcarpathian Rus’ on the slopes of low hills around Seredne and Berehovo. As early as 1720, these areas had nearly 4,000 hectares of vineyards; by the mid-nineteenth century that number had more than doubled. Since that time Subcarpathia’s wine industry has suffered two major disasters. After the 1870s nearly all the vineyards were destroyed by phylloxera. They slowly recovered and expanded, and under Soviet rule after 1945 nearly 12,000 hectares made possible the production of 150 sorts of wine, mostly whites. Then in the 1980s nearly three-quarters of the vineyards were deliberately destroyed in the course of Mikhail Gorbachev’s anti-alcohol campaign. In post-Communist Ukraine, Subcarpathia’s vineyards have been restored, and with the help of foreign investment an increasingly successful wine industry produces a wide range of red and most especially white wines, some of which are beginning to be exported.

    #391616

    Anonymous

    Bereg (http://www.rusyn.org/geobereg.html) — historic *county in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north, *Uzh county to the west, Sobolch/Szabolcs and Sokmar/Szatmar counties to the south, and *Maramorosh and *Ugocha counties to the east. Bereg county was formed in 1261 and lasted until 1919, when most of its territory was incorporated into Czechoslovakia. It covered 3,727 sq. kilometers with an administrative center at Berehovo (Hungarian: Beregszasz). According to present-day administrative boundaries, the former Bereg county includes the Berehovo, Mukachevo, Volovets’ districts, most of Svaliava, and western Irshava districts (raiony) of the *Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine, as well as a small portion of northeastern Hungary.

    Bereg’s population in 1910 numbered 236,600 and included 113,100 *Magyars, 100,900 Rusyns, 33,700 ****s, 20,700 *Germans, and smaller numbers of *Slovaks and *Gypsies/Roma. The county’s largest city was Mukachevo (Hungarian: Munkacs), of whose 17,200 inhabitants only 8 percent were Rusyns. Within Bereg are located some of the most important Rusyn cultural and historical centers, including the *St. Nicholas Monastery and the Mukachevo Castle, both near Mukachevo. From the eighteenth to the early twentieth century much of Bereg county was part of large landed estate owned by the *Schonborn-Buchheim family.

    Bibliography: Tivadar Lehoczky, Beregvarmegye monographiaja, 3 vols. (Uzhhorod, 1881; repr. 1994); Theodor Lehoczky, “Das Bereger Comitat,” in Die osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, Pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 418-429; Tivadar Lehoczky, Bereg varmegye (Uzhhorod, 1995).

    Paul Robert Magocsi

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
    http://www.uoftbookstore.com/online/merchant.ihtml?pid=137163&step=4

    Carpathian Mountains (http://www.rusyn.org/geomountains.html) — a major mountain system in Europe stretching about 1,500 kilometers and connecting in a broad arc the Alps with the Balkan peninsula. In terms of present-day political boundaries the Carpathians begin in western Slovakia just north of Bratislava and along the boundary with the Czech Republic. They continue eastward through Slovakia, southeastern Poland (the *Lemko Region), the *Transcarpathian oblast/*Subcarpathian Rus’ of Ukraine, and southward into Romania, where they turn abruptly westward and end near the Danube River at the passage known as the Iron Gates. The mountain chain is divided geographically into three basic parts: the Western Carpathians (in Slovakia and Poland); the Eastern Carpathians (in Ukraine and Romania); and the Southern Carpathians (in southern Romania). The great arc of the Carpathians is a kind of complement to the northern branch of the Alpine belt; its highest peak is Gerlachovsky stit (2,655 meters) in the Tatra range in Slovakia. Among the highest peaks in those ranges of the Carpathians inhabited by Rusyns (all on the southern slopes) are: Hoverla (2061 m.), Pop Ivan (2026 m.), Petros (2020 m.), Blyznytsia (1881 m.), and Popadia (1742 m.), which are all in the eastern part of Subcarpathian Rus’. The highest peaks in the Rusyn-inhabited *Presov Region of eastern Slovakia are Cierna (1289 m.), Siminy (1289 m.), and Mincol (1157 m.). See also Geography.

    Ivan Pop

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
    http://www.uoftbookstore.com/online/merchant.ihtml?pid=137163&step=4

    Carpathian Rus/Karpats’ka Rus’ (http://www.rusyn.org/georus.html) — territory historically inhabited by Carpatho-Rusyns. It covers approximately 18,000 square kilometers located along the southern and, in part, northern slopes of the Eastern Carpathian mountain ranges, stretching about 375 kilometers from the Poprad River in the west to the upper Tisza/Tysa and Ruscova/Rus’kova rivers in the east. According to present-day boundaries this territory is divided among Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and a small part of Romania. Carpathian Rus’ may be subdivided into four regions, whose boundaries are determined by the states in which each is located: the *Lemko Region (in Poland), the *Presov Region (in Slovakia), *Subcarpathian Rus’ (in Ukraine), and the *Maramures Region (in Romania).

    Both the concept of Carpathian Rus’ and its territorial extent have varied. During the second half of the nineteenth century scholars in the Russian Empire (Iakiv *Holovats’kyi, 1875; Ivan *Filevich, 1895; Fedor *Aristov, 1916) understood Carpathian Rus’ to include “Russian-inhabited” lands within the Habsburg Empire, that is, all of eastern Galicia and northern Bukovina as well as Ugorskaia Rus’ (i.e., Subcarpathian Rus’ and the Presov Region in Hungary). As early as 1850 the Rusyn historian Andrei Deshko understood the term Carpathian Rus’ to include only Rusyn-inhabited lands in the Hungarian Kingdom (Subcarpathian Rus’ and the Presov Region). At the close of World War I, however, Carpatho-Rusyn political leaders, in petitions submitted along with maps to the Paris Peace Conference (1919), defined Carpathian Rus’ to mean Subcarpathian Rus’, the Presov Region, and, on the northern slopes of the mountains, the Lemko Region (as far east as the San River).

    Paul Robert Magocsi

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
    http://www.uoftbookstore.com/online/merchant.ihtml?pid=137163&step=4

    #391617

    Anonymous

    Makovytsia (http://www.rusyn.org/geomakovytsia.html) — territory in the center of the Rusyn-inhabited Presov Region encompassing the northern portion of historic *Sharysh/Saros county, the present Bardejov and Svidnik districts (okresy) in Slovakia. The region derives its name from a manorial estate (*dominium) founded in the 1340s and administered from a castle at Makovytsia (castrum Makavycha) above the village of Zborov north of Bardejov and later at Vel’ky Saris just west of Presov. By the outset of the fifteenth century the estate included 67 villages, the vast majority inhabited by Rusyns. During the seventeenth century the Makovytsia estate was owned by the Roman Catholic branch of the Rakoczy family, but in the 1680s they lost the estate and the castle was destroyed during the anti-Habsburg rebellion of Imre *Thokoly. During the nineteenth-century Rusyn national revival the “nightingale of Makovytsia,” Aleksander *Pavlovych, used the region and its inhabitants as the setting for his literary images in several poems. The term Makovytsia is also used by linguists to refer to a sub-group of Rusyn dialects spoken north and east of Bardejov and Svidnik (see Map 12). Finally, Makovytsia is the name given to a volcanic massif just east of Uzhhorod in *Subcarpathian Rus’ (see Map 4).

    Bibliography: Pavlo Iatsko, “Mynuvshyna ‘biloho’ makovytskoho zamku,” Podkarpatska Rus’, IV, 9 (Uzhhorod, 1927), pp. 201-205; Peter Ratkos, “Vznik a osidlenie makovickeho panstva do zaciatku 17. storocia,” in Prispevky k dejinam vychodneho Slovenska: materialy zo IV. sjazdu slovenskych historikov v Kosiciach (Bratislava, 1964), pp. 40-55; Omelian Stavrovs’kyi, Slovats’ko-pol’s’ko-ukrains’ke prykordonnia do 18 stolittia (Bratislava and Presov, 1967), pp. 38-57.

    Paul Robert Magocsi

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
    http://www.uoftbookstore.com/online/merchant.ihtml?pid=137163&step=4

    Maramorosh (Hungarian: Maramaros) (http://www.rusyn.org/geomaramorosh.html) — historic county in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north and east, *Bereg and *Ugocha/Ugocsa counties to the west, and Sokmar/Szatmar and Szolnok-Doboka counties to the south. Maramorosh was formed in 1303 and lasted until 1919, after which its territory was incorporated into Czechoslovakia and Romania. Maramorosh county covered 10,354 sq. kilometers and was subdivided into 9 districts (jaras) and 159 villages; its administrative center was Sighet (Hungarian: Maramarossziget; Romanian: Sighetu Marmatiei; Rusyn: Maramorosh Siget). According to present-day administrative boundaries, the former Maramorosh county includes the Rakhiv, Tiachovo, Khust, Mizhhir”ia, and part of the Irshava districts (raiony) of the Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine and the northern part of the Maramures district (judete) in Romania. The population of Maramorosh in 1910 numbered 357,700, of whom 159,500 were Rusyns; 84,500 Romanians; 60,000 Germans; and 53,000 Magyars. Within the religious category there were 66,000 ***s.

    Since the Middle Ages Maramorosh county was known for its rich salt mines near Solotvyno and later for its lumber resources, which were floated down the Tisza (Rusyn: Tysa) River to markets in lowland Hungary. As a result of decisions taken at the Paris Peace Conference (treaties of *St. Germain, 1919, and *Trianon, 1920), Maramorosh was divided, with about three-fifths of its territory going to Czechoslovakia and the remainder, south of the Tisza River (its left bank), going to Romania. That portion of the county that went to Romania was inhabited primarily by Romanians, although it included as well about a dozen Rusyn villages just east of Sighet along the left bank of the Tisza River and its tributaries the Viseu (Rusyn: Vyshova) and Ruscova (Rusyn: Rus’kova) rivers. In Czechoslovakia Ugocha county was joined with Maramorosh to form a single county (Czech: Marmaros), with its administrative center in Sevliush (present-day Vynohradovo) and later Khust. In 1927 Maramorosh along with other historic counties ceased to exist following the administrative reform in Czechoslovakia.

    Bibliography: Gabriel Varady, “Das Maramaroser Comitat,” in Die osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 439-462; Janos Mihalyi, Maramarosmegye tortenete (Sighet, 1901); Jozsef Pap, Adalekok Maramaros tortenetehez (Sighet, 1909); Vasylii Hadzhega, “Dodatky k ystorii rusynov y rus’kykh tserkvei v Maramoroshi,” Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva ‘Prosvita’, I (Uzhhorord, 1922), pp. 140-226; Alexandru Filipascu, Istoria Maramuresului (Bucharest, 1940)—2nd ed. (Baia Mare, 1997); Vilmos Belay, Maramaros megye tarsadalma es nemzetisegei (Budapest, 1943); Mariana Sustic, Istoria Maramuresului (Sighet, 1997).

    Paul Robert Magocsi

    Ivan Pop

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
    http://www.uoftbookstore.com/online/merchant.ihtml?pid=137163&step=4

    Maramures Region (http://www.rusyn.org/geomaramures.html) — the Rusyn-inhabited part of northcentral Romania along the present-day border with Ukraine. The Maramures Region consists of about a dozen Rusyn villages along the southern bank of the Tisza (Rusyn: Tysa) River and its tributaries the Viseu (Rusyn: Vyshova) and Ruscova (Rusyn: Rus’kova) rivers. Also included on the southern bank of the Tisza is the town of Sighet/Sighetu Marmatiei, which was the administrative center of the pre-World War I Hungarian county of *Maramorosh (Hungarian: Maramaros) and a cultural center for the local Rusyn community. After World War I Maramorosh county was divided along the Tisza River between Czechoslovakia (*Subcarpathian Rus’) on the northern bank and Romania (the Maramures Region) on the southern bank. According to present-day administrative boundries, the Rusyn-inhabited Maramures Region is part of the larger Romanian district (judete) of Maramures.

    Paul Robert Magocsi

    Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.
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    #391618

    Anonymous

    Mukachevo-Chynadiievo estate (http://www.rusyn.org/geoestate.html) — one of the largest landed estates (dominia) in central Europe. Located in the central part of *Subcarpathian Rus’, the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo estate was first mentioned at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Its eastern half, centered in Chynadiievo (the St. Nicholas/Szent-Miklos estate), included 15 settlements stretching from Pidhorod’ near Mukachevo northward to the crest of the Carpathians near the Volovets’ pass. Its western half comprised the Mukachevo estate, which in 1243 the Hungarian king, Bela IV (r. 1235-1270), presented as a gift first to his son-in-law, the Rus’ prince of Galicia, Rostyslav, and then to another of his son-in-law, the late thirteenth-century Galician-Rus’ prince Lev. In 1392 then Hungarian king Zsigmond/Sigismund (r. 1387-1437) gave the Mukachevo estate to the Lithuanian-Rus’ prince Fedor *Koriatovych, who was forced to flee from Podolia and seek refuge in Hungary. After the death of Koriatovych (1414) and his widow, Walha, the estate was given to Matyas Palocsy, then in 1427 to the king’s Serbian allies, Juraj Brankovic and Stepan Lazarevic, who had been forced to flee their homeland because of the advancing Ottoman Turks. The regularity of such “gifts” illustrates that the Mukachevo estate had at this time remained royal property, lent only in vassalage to individuals in recognition for their service to the Hungarian king.

    In 1585 the Mukachevo and St. Nicholas (Chynadiievo) estates were united into a single entity known as the Mukachevo-St. Nicholas, or the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo manorial estate. Throughout the seventeenth century, as a manorial estate, it was in the hands of the Rakoczy family and princes of Transylvania. Following the defeat of Ferenc II Rakoczy in his wars against the Austrian Habsburgs (1703-1711) the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo estate was confiscated by the Austrian state and, in 1728, given by Emperor Charles VI to the archbishop of Mainz, Lothar Franz von Schonborn. After the latter’s death in 1729 the property reverted to his nephew, the archbishop of Wurzburg, Friedrich Karl von Schonborn. Thus began the era of the *Schonborn family dynasty in Subcarpathian Rus’. According to the charter of the imperial gift, dated 1731, the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo manorial estate consisted of 200 villages (together with their enserfed peasantry) and 4 towns—a territory measuring nearly 2,400 square kilometers with about 14,000 inhabitants, of whom 93 percent were peasant serfs.

    The manorial estate was run by an administrator who resided in Chynadiievo and who oversaw sheriffs (zhupany); the sheriffs, in turn, were responsible for the economy of individual parts (districts) of the estate. The vast property the Schonborns received had been devastated by decades of war. Since towns and villages were largely bereft of their inhabitants, colonists were invited from Germany and later Austria (see Germans). These settlers brought with them to Subcarpathian Rus’ new forms of economic management and agricultural techniques. The estate’s administrators required Rusyn peasants to adopt the innovative three-crop rotational system and introduced crops which were new to the region: corn, tobacco, and most significantly, potatoes, which before long were to become the basic foodstuff in Rusyn villages. With the help of Germanic peasant settlers the Schonborns were able to raise the quality of orchards and vineyards, so that the estate was soon supplying on an annual basis to Austrian markets 200 barrels of wine and thousands of kilograms of dried fruits. They also created entirely new branches for the local agricultural economy: horse breeding, beer-brewing, and potash production. In the spirit of mercantilism, which at the time dominated Austrian economic theory and practice, the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo manorial estate renewed old and created new manufactures, such as iron works in Shelestovo; glass works in Velykyi Luh; a brewery and linen works in Pidhoriany; a paper mill in Nyzhnia Hrabivnytsia; and several woodworking, tile, and brick plants.

    By the 1780s the estate was divided into three sectors: Mukachevo, Berehovo, and Nyzhni Verets’ki. Each sector included specific economic activities to which the villages within a given sector were expected to concentrate their energies. The Mukachevo and Berehovo sectors specialized in raising grain, potatoes, and fruits; in producing wine; operating small manufacturing plants; and breeding livestock for meat and transport (oxen, horses). The Nizhni Verets’ki sector, located as it was in mountainous areas, raised thousands of heads of sheep that produced cheese, wool, and meat. The administrators of the estate also carried out reclamation projects in the so-called Black Wetland (chornyi mochar) on the lowlands near Berehovo, and they oversaw the clean-up of previously unproductive forests and brush lands. By the middle of the nineteenth century they had managed to increase the estate’s arable land by threefold, resulting in a 100-fold increase in the estate’s productive capacity. As well, the estate adapted to the development of industry that reached Hungary during the second half of the nineteenth century.

    Such was the importance of the Schonborn’s Mukachevo-Chynadiievo manorial estate that at the Economic Exhibition held in Budapest in 1885 it had its own pavilion. By that time the estate covered 134,000 hectares of land, including 107,600 hectares of forest; 10,900 hectares of arable land; 9,100 hectares of grazelands; 5,600 hectares of meadows; 221 hectares of orchards; and 65 hectares of vineyards. After World War I and the establishment of Czechoslovak rule in Subcarpathian Rus’ the Mukachevo-Chynadiievo estate survived the land reforms carried out by the new regime (1919-1929): a mere 0.25 percent of its property was confiscated by the state, while one-fifth was parcelled and sold to peasant farmers. In 1928 Count Schonborn “sold” for the symbolic price of 35 million Czechoslovak crowns three-quarters of the estate’s landed property to the so-called Ben’on Company, which immediately turned the properties over to the Latorica Company, whose major shareholder was Count Schonborn himself. The Latorica Company continued to run the estate properties until, in 1944, they were confiscated and nationalized by the National Council of Transcarpathian Ukraine.

    Bibliography: Julius Blumenwitz, Die Herrschaft Munkacs im Beregher Comitate Ungarns (Vienna, 1867); Andrii Shash, “Narys sotsiial’noi i hospodars’koi istorii Shenborns’koi latyfundii Mukachevo-Chynadiievs’koi v pershii polovyni XVII st.,” Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva “Prosvita”, IX (Uzhhorod, 1932), pp. 101-134; Andor Sas, Egy karpati latifundium a huberi vilag alkonyan: a munkacsi Schonborn-uradalom tarsadalmi es gazdasagi viszonyai a XIX. szazad elso feleben (Bratislava, 1955).

    Ivan Pop

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    Palatinate (Polish: wojewodztwo) (http://www.rusyn.org/geopalatinate.html) — territorial and administrative unit of the former Polish Kingdom and the twentieth-century republic of Poland. The palatinate system was introduced at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. At that time the *Lemko Region was divided administratively along a north-south line that ended at the Dukla/Dukl’a pass, with the Cracow palatinate/Wojewodztwo krakowskie to the west and the Rus’ palatinate/Wojewodztwo ruskie to the east. Each palatinate in turn was subdivided into lands (ziemia), with the Lemko Region divided from west to east into the Sacz Land/Ziemia sadecka, the Biecz Land/Ziemia biecka, and the Sanok Land/Ziemia sanocka. In the seventeenth century territory from the Biecz and Sanok lands was detached to form a new Krosno Land/Ziemia krosnienska, which was eventually renamed the Jaslo Land/Ziemia jasielska. The palatinates were headed by a palatinate/wojewoda appointed by the king. The lands were headed by a lord sheriff/starosta (later starosta generalny), who was also appointed by the king. The lord sheriff/starosta remained the king’s representative even after the lands were administered by a government official/urzednik ziemski. The palatinate-land administrative structure came to an end with the partitions and eventual disappearance of Poland-Lithuania between 1772 and 1795.

    When Poland was restored as a republic in 1918, the state was also divided into palatinates. The two palatintes that covered the Lemko Region retained the *districts formed during Austrian Habsburg rule. Post-1918 Poland’s Cracow palatinate/Wojewodztwo krakowskie included the Nowy Targ, Nowy Sacz, Grybow (until ca. 1930), Gorlice, Jaslo, and Krosno districts; the L’viv palatinate/Wojewodztwo lwowskie included the Sanok and Lesko districts. In no district did Lemko Rusyns form a majority of the inhabitants; according to the 1931 census, the districts with the largest percentage of Lemko Rusyns were Sanok (ca. 35 percent) and Gorlice (24 percent), to which Grybow was subsumed.

    Since World War II, Poland’s palatinate structure has been altered three times. The Lemko Region was initially divided between the Cracow and Rzeszow palatinates; from 1976 to 1999 it was divided between the Nowy Sacz and Krasno palatinates; and since 1999 it is divided between the Malopolskie/Little Poland and Podkarpacie/Subcarpathia palatinates.

    Bogdan Horbal

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    Presov Region (http://www.rusyn.org/geopresov.html) — name for Rusyn-inhabited territory in present-day eastern Slovakia. It refers to approximately 300 villages, at least 50 percent of whose inhabitants were Rusyns at the outset of the twentieth century (ca. 1910). The Presov Region is bordered on the east by *Subcarpathian Rus’ (present-day Ukraine’s Transcarpathia) and stretches westward to the village of Osturna at the foot of the Tatra Mountains in north-central Slovakia. This territory basically falls within the jurisdiction of the *Greek Catholic Eparchy of Presov (est. 1816), which in terms of historic Hungarian counties included the northern portions of *Spish (Hungarian: Szepes), Sharysh (Saros), and Zemplyn (Zemplin), as well as western Uzh (Ung). The region’s name is derived from the city of Presov, which since the early nineteenth century has been the seat of the Greek Catholic eparchy and the cultural center of Rusyns living in this part of *Carpathian Rus’. Presov itself, however, is not within Rusyn ethnolinguistic territory.

    The concept of a “Presov Region” is of recent origin and the term began to be used only after World War I, when Rusyns living south of the Carpathians were divided by an administrative boundary, first that of *Rus’ka Kraina under the short-lived Hungarian Republic (1918-1919), then that between the Czechoslovak provinces of Subcarpathian Rus’ and Slovakia (1919-1938). To distinguish the Rusyns under a Slovak administration from those in the theoretically self-governing Subcarpathian Rus’, the term Presov Region (Rusyn: Preshovska Rus’/Priashivska Rus’; Russian: Priashevshchina/Priashevskaia Rus’; Ukrainian: Priashivshchyna) began to be used in the early 1920s by Rusyn civic and cultural activists. Although it was never an official term designating a specific territorial entity, after World War II Presov Region (in the forms Priashevshchina and Priashivshchyna) was used as the name both of the newly established *Ukrainian National Council (1945-1949) and its newspaper, *Priashevshchina, some of whose supporters called for Rusyn territorial autonomy within Slovakia. Both Slovak Communist and non-Communist political and cultural activists were opposed to the term Presov Region (there is no equivalent in the Slovak language), since it implies that there is a solidly inhabited region within “Slovak” territory within which Rusyns are a clear majority rather than a national minority. Rusyn-oriented publications, including this encyclopedia, use the term Presov Region to refer to all villages within the present-day boundaries of Slovakia that at one time had a population of 50 percent or more Rusyns (see Maps 3 and 6).

    Bibliography: Ivan Vanat, “Do pytannia vzhyvannia terminiv ‘Zakarpattia’ ta ‘Priashivshchyna’,” in Mykhailo Rychalka, ed., Zhovten’ i ukrains’ka kul’tura (Presov, 1968), pp. 602-603; Paul Robert Magocsi, “Mapping Stateless Peoples: The East Slavs of the Carpathians,” Canadian Slavonic Papers, XXXIX, 3-4 (Edmonton, 1997), pp. 301-331.

    Paul Robert Magocsi

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    #391619

    Anonymous

    Sharysh (Hungarian: Saros; Slovak: Saris) (http://www.rusyn.org/geosharysh.html) — historic county in the northcentral part of the Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north, *Spish/Szepes county to the west, *Abov-Torna/Abauj-Torna to the south, and *Zemplyn/Zemplen to the east. Sharysh county is roughly divided into a mountainous area in the north, inhabited largely by Rusyns, and lower foothills and plains in the south inhabited by Slovaks; it is drained by the Poprad, Torysa, Topl’a, and Ondava rivers.

    Sharysh county was formed in the fourteenth century with an administrative center first at the Sharysh castle/Sarissky hrad and from the eighteenth century in the city of Presov (Hungarian: Eperjes). Also of importance as a trading center was the town of Bardejov (Hungarian: Bartfa; German: Bartfeld). In 1910 the county covered 3,821 square kilometers and had 174,600 inhabitants, of whom 101,900 were Slovaks; 38,500 Rusyns; 18,100 Magyars; 9,500 Germans; and 6,700 others. Over 12,000 were of Jewish religion. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary in late 1918 Sharysh was incorporated into Czechoslovakia; it continued to exist as an administrative entity until 1927, when the county (zupa) system was abolished. Its former territory includes the districts (okresy) of Bardejov, Svidnik, Sabinov, Presov, and part of Stara L’ubovna in present-day Slovakia.

    Bibliography: Albert Berzeviczy, “Das Saroser Comitat,” in Die osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 325-362; Sandor Toth, Saros varmegye monographiaja, 3 vols. (Budapest, 1909-12); Jan Mihal’ and Martin Mihaly, Horny Saris: historicky, ekonomicky a geologicky nacrt (Bardejov, 1969).

    Paul Robert Magocsi

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    Spish (Hungarian: Szepes; Slovak: Spis) (http://www.rusyn.org/geospish.html) — county in the northcentral Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north, *Sharysh/Saros county to the east, Liptov to the west, and *Abov/Abauj and Gemer/Gomor counties to the south. In 1910 Spish county covered 3,668 square kilometers and had 172,800 inhabitants, of whom 97,100 were Slovaks; 38,500 Germans; 18,600 Magyars; 12,300 Rusyns; and 6,200 others. It was named after the Spish castle (Spissky hrad), which was its administrative center until the sixteenth century; thereafter, its center was Levoca (Hungarian: Locse).

    The county is basically a mountainous region drained by two river systems: the Poprad and Dunajec flow northward into the Vistula-Baltic watershed; the Hornad and Torysa rivers flow southeastward into the Danubian Basin. Spish was traditionally known for its cultural and political diversity. In the twelfth century the county became home to German/Saxon settlers, and towns like Levoca (German: Leutshau) and Kezmarok (German: Kasmark) were to retain a Germanic character until the twentieth century. Between 1412 and 1772, 15 towns and 13 villages in the heart of Spish were ruled by Poland (including Stara L’ubovna, Poprad, Spisska Nova Ves, and Spisske Podhradie), and as a result they took on a Polish flavor. Rusyns lived for the most part in several villages north of Stara L’ubovna, a town that from time to time functioned as their local cultural center. There were also other isolated Rusyn villages, including a cluster in the far southeastern corner of the county (Zavadka, Porac, Slovinky, Helmanovce, Kojsov). After the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918 a small portion of Spish county along the Dunajec River was ceded to Poland; however, the vast majority its territory (including the farthest western Rusyn village of Osturna) became part of Czechoslovakia. According to present-day boundaries, the former territory of Spish county includes the districts (okresy) of Poprad, Kezmarok, Stara L’ubovna, Levoca, Spisska Nova Ves, and Gelnica in Slovakia, and a small area near the town of Zakopane in far southern Poland.

    Bibliography: Istvan Udvari, “A szepessegi ruszinok nepelete Maria Terezia koraban/Zivot spisskych Rusinov v obdobi panovania Marie Terezie,” Neprajzi Tanulmanyok, Vol. XIX (Komarno, 1994), pp. 317-332; Peter Svorc, ed., Spis v kontinuite casu/Zips in der Kontinuitat der Zeit (Presov, Bratislava, and Vienna, 1995); Antoni Kroh, Spisz: wielokulturowe dziedzictwo (Sejny, 2000).

    Paul Robert Magocsi

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    Subcarpathian Rus’/Podkarpats’ka Rus’ (http://www.rusyn.org/geosubcarpathian.html) — name for the territory in the upper Tisza/Tysa River valley along the southern slopes and foothills of the *Carpathian Mountains inhabited historically by Carpatho-Rusyns. The name is relatively recent in origin and first appeared in the writings of Rusyn national awakeners during the nineteenth century. At that time Subcarpathian Rus’ designated all Rusyn territory south of the Carpathians in the pre-World War I Hungarian Kingdom, that is, in what is today northeastern Slovakia as well as the *Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine. The absence of an older “more historic” name for Rusyns living south of the Carpathians is explained by the fact that their homeland was always a territorially peripheral and politically marginal entity within the states that ruled over them. The nineteenth-century national awakeners tried to argue that Subcarpathian Rus’ derived from the existence in the early medieval period (eleventh century) of an entity called *Marchia Ruthenorum, whose ruler was the Dux Ruizorum (the Rus’ prince). While it is true that Marchia Ruthenorum did refer to a borderland (marchia is the Latin term for march or mark), the territory in question was centered on the lowlands of northeastern Pannonia, where at the time various Pannonian Slavic (not Rusyn) peoples lived.

    The earliest documents refer to the territory inhabited by Rusyns south of the Carpathians as the res nullius or terra nullius, that is, the “no-man’s land.” This mountainous region, covered with ancient forests and connected to the north by only a few, difficult-to-cross passes, was in fact sparsely settled. Moreover, before the early thirteenth century it was little more than an “in-between territory” (terra indagines) among three states: Kievan Rus’, Poland, and the Hungarian Kingdom (see Map 7). In practice, no one of these states was able to nor needed to conquer this “in-between” land. At the outset of the thirteenth century, however, the Hungarian Kingdom began from the south to push its borders into the in-between territory. In contrast to their neighbors to the north (Poland and Kievan Rus’), the Hungarians had direct access to the territory and did not have to cross high mountain passes. As Hungary gradually took over the region, it did not create a single administrative unit but rather several counties—*Spish (Hungarian: Szepes, 1202), *Sharysh/Saros (1247), *Zemplyn/Zemplen, *Uzh/Ung, Bereg (1214/1261), *Ugocha/Ugocsa (1262), and *Maramorosh/Maramaros (1303/1330)—which in effect encompassed most Rusyn-inhabited territory.

    During the nineteenth-century Rusyn national revival, a period which coincided with the rise of Slavophile ideology in the Russian Empire, the terms Ugorskaia, *Uhors’ka Rus’/Hungarian Rus’, and *Carpathian Rus’ (which the *Slavophiles took to mean eastern Galicia and northern Bukovina as well as Subcarpathian Rus’) began to appear in writings. These various names were used until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918. The short-lived Hungarian People’s Republic christened the territory at the end of 1918 with the name *Rus’ka Kraina, or Rus’ Land (Hungarian: Ruszka krajna), although that name applied only to four of the Rusyn-inhabited counties (Uzh, Bereg, Ugocha, Maramorosh). In documents generated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 the formulation, “territory inhabited by Ruthenians south of the Carpathians,” was used; in documents from this period produced by Rusyn-American immigrants the terms Subcarpathian Rus’ and Rusinia appeared. It was Czechoslovakia’s constitution (1920) which for the first time used as an official name Subcarpathian Rus’ (Czech: Podkarpatska Rus), although in some Czech publications the term Rusinsko was employed. Subcarpathian Rus’ referred, however, only to the new country’s administrative unit, basically east of the Uzh river (eastern Uzh, Bereg, Ugocha, and Maramarosh counties). Other Rusyn-inhabited lands south of the Carpathians that fell under a Slovak provincial administration (in western Uzh, Zemplyn, Sharysh, and *Spish counties) gradually came to be known as the Preshovs’ka, Priashovs’ka Rus’, or the *Presov Region. Ukrainian emigres who settled in Subcarpathian Rus’ after 1919 used a wide range of names, including Pidkarpats’ka Rus’ (Subcarpathian Rus’), Prykarpats’ka Ukraina (Ukraine near the Carpathians), Zakarpats’ka Ukraina (Ukraine beyond the Carpathians), Karpats’ka Ukraina (Carpatho-Ukraine), and even the vague term Sribna Zemlia (The Silver Land). After Czechoslovakia introduced a new territorial-administrative reform (July 1927) the republic was divided into four lands, the farthest east of which received the formal designation, Zeme podkarpatoruska (The Subcarpathian Land).

    When, on October 11, 1938, the province was given its own autonomous government, Subcarpathian Rus’ became again the official name as entered into Czechoslovak constitutional law (November 22, 1938). After coming to power (October 26), the pro-Ukrainian autonomous government began to use the term *Carpatho-Ukraine. In response, the constitutional law made it clear that the “final name of the autonomous territory of Rusyns living south of the Carpathians would be decided by a law passed [in the future] by the diet of Subcarpathian Rus’.” The Ukrainophile premier of the province’s autonomous government, Avhustyn *Voloshyn, disregarded the caveat in the Czechoslovak law and decreed on December 30, 1938, that “the name Carpatho-Ukraine may be used alongside Subcarpathian Rus’ to designate the province.” In practice, however, only the name Carpatho-Ukraine was used, although it was not officially adopted by the Subcarpathian diet until March 15, 1939. Since the Hungarian Army had already begun to occupy the rest of the province, the term Carpatho-Ukraine as an official designation technically existed for only one day.

    The Hungarian regime intended to name its new territorial acquisition Karpataljai vajdasag (The Carpathian Voivodeship), which assumed the existence of an autonomous entity. But since the Hungarians never granted any autonomy, the territory was officially called Karpataljai terulet (The Subcarpathian Territory). After the arrival of the Soviet Army in October 1944 the name *Transcarpathian Ukraine/Zakarpats’ka Ukraina (literally: Ukraine beyond the Carpathians, from the perspective of Kiev or Moscow) began to be used as a means to indicate Soviet territorial pretentions to this (still formally) eastern part of Czechoslovakia. When the territory was in fact annexed to the Soviet Union (June 1945), the historical and ethnonymic part of its name was dropped within a few months and it became simply the *Transcarpathian oblast/Zakarpats’ka oblast (literally: the territory beyond the Carpathians). Post-Communist independent Ukraine continues to use the term Transcarpathian oblast, although publications and organizations connected with the Rusyn national revival in the region and abroad use the historic name, Subcarpathian Rus’.

    Bibliography: Omelian Stavrovs’kyi, Slovats’ko-pol’s’ko-ukrains’ke prykordonnia do 18 stolittia (Bratislava and Presov, 1967), pp. 9-26; Paul Robert Magocsi, The Shaping of a National Identity: Subcarpathian Rus’ 1848-1948 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1978), pp. 277-281; Ivan Pop, “Homo totalitaricus?: istoriia Zakarpattia, krytychni rozdumy,” Karpats’kyi krai, VI, 5-7 [114] (Uzhhorod, 1996), pp. 1-22; Mykhailo M. Boldyzhar, Nauka vymahaie pravdy (Uzhhorod, 1999), pp. 21-27.

    Ivan Pop

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    #391620

    Anonymous

    Ugocha (Hungarian: Ugocsa) (http://www.rusyn.org/geougocha.html) — county in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom, mostly in Subcarpathian Rus’. It was the smallest county in the kingdom, covering 1,191 square kilometers and surrounded by *Bereg, Szatmar, and *Maramorosh counties; its administrative center was Sevliush (today Vynohradovo). Its population numbered 91,800 (1910), of whom 42,700 were *Magyars, 34,400 Rusyns, 11,800 *Jews, and 9,700 *Romanians.

    During the early Middle Ages the territory of the future county was inhabited by Slavic tribes, who during the sixth century drove out or assimilated the Thracian peoples living there. The Chronicle of *Anonymous reports that Magyar tribes entered the region at the end of the ninth century, although it was not until the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries that they established their authority there within the framework of the Hungarian Kingdom. Ugocha’s territory was ravaged by the Mongolo-Tatar invasion (1241), then on several occasions resettled by Rusyn and German (Saxon) colonists invited by Hungary’s kings. Ugocha was formally constituted as a county in 1262; it reached the height of development during the reign of the Anjou and Luxembourg dynasties in Hungary from the fourteenth to the first half of the sixteenth centuries. Thereafter, until the early eighteenth century, the county became a theater of war between the armies of the Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Austria, and Transylvania. The resultant conflict transformed Ugocha into an uninhabited wasteland. Gradually, villages were restored during the second half of the eighteenth century. Sevliush remained Ugocha’s administrative center, although the town effectively ceased to function as a center for artisanship and trade.

    According to the *Treaty of Trianon (1920) Ugocha was divided; four-fifths of its territory went to Czechoslovakia and one-fifth to Romania. In Czechoslovakia it became part of Maramorosh county (with an administrative center in Sevliush and later Khust) until the county (zupa) system was abolished in 1927. After 1945, in Soviet Transcarpathia, the Sevliush, later Vynohradovo, district (raion) was formed on what was the territory of former Ugocha county.

    Bibliography: Sigmund Perenyi, “Das Ugocsaer Comitat,” in Die osterreichische-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, Pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 463-472; Vasylii Hadzhega, “Dodatky do istorii Rusynov y rus’kykh tserkvei v zhupi Ugocha,” Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva ‘Prosvita’, IV (Uzhhorod, 1925), pp. 117-176 and V (1927), pp. 1-62; Istvan Szabo, Ugocsa megye (Budapest, 1937; repr. 1994); Georg Heller, Comitatus Maramarosiensis/Comitatus Ugocsiensis (Munich, 1985).

    Ivan Pop

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    Sorry for killer long posts… these are all some of the main geographical areas and terms important to the Rusyn territory and identity in itself. They cover placed in history and modern areas. A great understanding of the land area involved in those who identify as Rusyn, Lemko, Hutsul, Ruthenian, Rusini, and more.

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