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  • #342019

    Anonymous
    [size=15pt]The Glagolitic alphabet[/size]

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    The Glagolitic alphabet (play /ɡlæɡəˈlɪtɪk/), also known as Glagolitsa, is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. The name was not coined until many centuries after its creation, and comes from the Old Slavic glagolъ "utterance" (also the origin of the Slavic name for the letter G). The verb glagoliti means "to speak". It has been conjectured that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagolity, applied to adherents of the liturgy in Slavonic.

    The name Glagolitic in Belarusian is глаголіца (hłaholica), Bulgarian and Macedonian глаголица (glagolica), Croatian and Serbian glagoljica / глагољица, Czech hlaholice, Polish głagolica, Russian глаго́лица (glagólica), Slovene glagolica, Slovak hlaholika, and Ukrainian глаголиця (hlaholyća).

    The two monks later canonized as Saints Cyril and Methodius, the brothers from Thessaloniki, were sent to Great Moravia in 862 by the Byzantine emperor at the request of Knyaz (Duke) Rastislav, who wanted to weaken the dependence of his country on East Frankish priests. The glagolitic alphabet, however it originated, was used between 863 and 885 for government and religious documents and books, and at the Great Moravian Academy (Veľkomoravské učilište) founded by the missionaries, where their followers were educated.

    In 886, an East Frankish bishop of Nitra named Wiching banned the script and jailed 200 followers of Methodius, mostly students of the original academy. They were then dispersed or, according to some sources, sold as slaves by the Franks. Many of them (including Naum, Clement, Angelarious, Sava and Gorazd), however, reached Bulgaria and were commissioned by Boris I of Bulgaria to teach and instruct the future clergy of the state into the Slavic languages. After the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria in 865, religious ceremonies and Divine Liturgy were conducted in Greek by clergy sent from the Byzantine Empire, using the Byzantine rite. Fearing growing Byzantine influence and weakening of the state, Boris viewed the introduction of the Slavic alphabet and language in church use as a way to preserve the independence of Slavic Bulgaria from Greek Constantinople. As a result of Boris' measures, two academies, one in Ohrid and one in Preslav, were founded.
    A page from the 10th-11th century Codex Zographensis found in the Zograf Monastery in 1843.

    From there, the students traveled to other places and spread the use of their alphabet. Some went to Croatia (into Dalmatia), where the squared variant arose and where the Glagolitic remained in use for a long time. In 1248, Pope Innocent IV gave the Croats of southern Dalmatia the unique privilege of using their own language and this script in the Roman Rite liturgy. Formally given to bishop Philip of Senj, the permission to use the Glagolitic liturgy (the Roman Rite conducted in Slavic language instead of Latin, not the Byzantine rite), actually extended to all Croatian lands, mostly along the Adriatic coast. The Holy See had several Glagolitic missals published in Rome. Authorisation for use of this language was extended to some other Slavic regions between 1886 and 1935.[10] In missals, the Glagolitic script was eventually replaced with the Latin alphabet, but the use of the Slavic language in the Mass continued, until replaced by the modern vernacular languages.

    Some of the students of the Ohrid academy went to Bohemia where the alphabet was used in the 10th and 11th century, along with other scripts. Glagolitic was also used in Kievan Rus.

    In Croatia, from the 12th century, Glagolitic inscriptions appeared mostly in littoral areas: Istra, Primorje, Kvarner and Kvarner islands, notably Krk, Cres and Lošinj; in Dalmatia, on the islands of Zadar, but there were also findings in inner Lika and Krbava, reaching to Kupa river, and even as far as Međimurje and Slovenia. The Hrvoje's Missal (Croatian Hrvojev misal) was written in Split, and it is considered one of the most beautiful Croatian Glagolitic books.

    It was believed that Glagolitsa in Croatia was present only in those areas. But, in 1992, the discovery of Glagolitic inscriptions in churches along the Orljava river in Slavonia, totally changed the picture (churches in Brodski Drenovac, Lovčić and some others), showing that use of Glagolitic alphabet was spread from Slavonia also.[11]

    At the end of the ninth century, one of these students of Methodius who had settled in Preslav (Bulgaria) created the Cyrillic alphabet, which almost entirely replaced the Glagolitic during the Middle Ages. The Cyrillic alphabet is derived from the Greek alphabet, with (at least 10) letters peculiar to Slavic languages being derived from the Glagolitic.

    Nowadays, Glagolitic is used only for Church Slavic (Croatian and Czech recensions).

    Croatian Cathedral Glagolitic script/runes:
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    Glagolitic rune, Baška-Croatia.
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    Glagolitic script, Novi Vinodolski – Croatia
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    Vinodolski Zakon/Code, on Glagolitic script
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    (along side russian code "pravda", Vinodolski Zakon is the oldest Slavic code/law written)

    Missal of Prince Novak from 1368 – Glagolitic script of Croatian Noble Novak, written in gold. (held in Vienna museum)  >:(
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    the Plomin tablet from Istria, 10th century, creation of freshly settled Croats
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    Konavle fragment, year 1066.
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    Zupa Dubrovacka fragment in Glagolitic script (10th cenutry)
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    Baška fragment in Glagolitic script, 11th century
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    Knin fragment in Glagolitic script, 10th century. The first crown city of Croats, and the seat of the crown of Kingdom of Croatia.
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    Sveti Kriz fragment in Glagolitic script (12-13th century), found around town Rijeka
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    The Copenhagen Missal, Croatian Glagolitic missal from the 15th century, kept in the Royal Library Det Kongelige in Copenhagen  >:(
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    [img width=700 height=667]http://tamburica.ta.funpic.de/photo/gross/glagoljica.jpg”/>

    Glagolitic script was replaced by Latin script in Croatia. So today it's used only as a National symbol. It's usually used as item decoration on folk cloth, items, statues and other things.

    #359957

    Anonymous

    Very interesting information. To be honest I did not know much about Slavic scripts before the cyrillic alphabet was introduced.

    #359958

    Anonymous

    Codex Zographensis (Зографско Евангелие), 10th-11th century, Zograf Monastery, Mount Athos (Sveta Gora):

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    #359959

    Anonymous

    The book about Slavic runic script (in Russian, but interesting pictures)

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    http://www.boyaring.lodya.ru/slavru1.pdf

    http://www.boyaring.lodya.ru/slavru2.pdf

    #359960

    Anonymous

    Runes were used by Germanic tribes. Not by Slavs.
    Slavic runes = oxymoron.
    Glagolitic alphabet were not runes, lol  :D

    BTW I thought the oldest Slavic code of law is Great Moravian Zakon sudnyj ljudem, written in Glagolitic script by st. Kirillos (probably st. Methodios, too) in 9th century, inspired by Byzantine Ekloga  :)

    #359961

    Anonymous

    It makes you wonder…thanks for the thread and the links.  ;D

    #359962

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Runes were used by Germanic tribes. Not by Slavs.
    Slavic runes = oxymoron.
    Glagolitic alphabet were not runes, lol  :D

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    lol  :D

    #359963

    Anonymous

    Prelja,
    those signs are not glagolitic script. Just because some man (is he actually a scientist, or a "scientist"?) called those images runes it does not mean they are runes.
    Because they are not :)
    Moreover, those idols decribed there are well-known forgeries – "Prillwitz idols", dated back to 17th century  :)

    #359964

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Prelja,
    those signs are not glagolitic script.

    Where did I say that it was glagolitic script? :) This is, let’s say for you satisfaction, hypothetical pre-glagolic writing system, formerly used to write Slavic languages before the Christianization of the Slavs. :)

    Just because some man (is he actually a scientist, or a "scientist"?) called those images runes it does not mean they are runes.

    I posted this single book page in order to show you in language you know that that term is in use. I don’t know anything about the author of the book, nor a book. But Russians use that term as well  ;)

    Because they are not

    Try to prove that they are not. How can it be proved that one is not a camel? :D ;)

    Moreover, those idols decribed there are well-known forgeries – "Prillwitz idols", dated back to 17th century

    Zrkadlo, I don’t want to argue with you :) It is common view about forgery and I am accustomed with it. Please accept the opinion that linguists are more and more interesting in this issue, especially from Russia, where many so called “Slavic runic” inscriptions were preserved. If you look closer at the title of Russian book cover I posted, you could see the expression “facts and speculations”. This speaks for itself. Taking into account, that the book was edited and launched in 2005 I expect to find there a new look into such disputable matter.

    #359965

    Anonymous

    I wouldn't call the the glagolitic script "runes", cause it is still in use today, only in the second version, and it is named by one of its prominent authors (even though some argue it was just adapted by them) instead by it's Slavic name.

    #359966

    Anonymous

    Can the glagolitic alphabet still be used to write the same words as modern day cyrillic?
    I am having difficulty on trying to translate it..

    The text gives great inspiration for tattoos etc but I don't want to go ahead with that stuff without knowing more about glagolitic first.

    #359967

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Can the glagolitic alphabet still be used to write the same words as modern day cyrillic?
    I am having difficulty on trying to translate it..

    The text gives great inspiration for tattoos etc but I don't want to go ahead with that stuff without knowing more about glagolitic first.

    Yes it can still be used to write the same words. The second glagolitic azbuka (known as cyrillic) replaced some harder to write symbols with greek alphabet symbols. Over the course of time the azbuka got more and more simplified, especially the Serbian one which deleted all for their language 'unnecessary' letters.

    #359968

    Anonymous

    Is there some sort of online translator that translates Glagolitic into cyrillic?

    #359969

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Yes it can still be used to write the same words. The second glagolitic azbuka (known as cyrillic) replaced some harder to write symbols with greek alphabet symbols. Over the course of time the azbuka got more and more simplified, especially the Serbian one which deleted all for their language 'unnecessary' letters.

    http://www.omniglot.com/writing/glagolitic.htm

    which version is this one?

    #359970

    Anonymous
    Quote:

    Common cyrillic used by Russians, Serbs, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, is the glagolitic v.2 as one can see it has more greek alphabet letters than the first version, which used the old symbols.

    The glagolitic v.1 or also just glagolitic has two designs, the round (old one) and the angular (new one), also called 'croatian glagolitic'.

    The one you posted is the round glagolitic, the old one.

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