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  • #342351

    Anonymous

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    Gorals from Zakopane.

    The Gorale (Polish: Górale; Slovak: Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are a group of indigenous people found along southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic. There is also a significant Goral diaspora in the area of Bukovina in the western Ukraine and in northern Romania, as well as Chicago, the seat of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America.

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    Gorol men's choir from Jablunkov (Jabłonków) during the parade at the beginning of the Jubileuszowy Festiwal PZKO 2007 in Karviná (Karwina).

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    In Poland they live in the region of Podhale of the Tatra Mountains and parts of the Beskids (Cieszyn Silesia, Silesian Beskids, Żywiec Beskids). In present-day Slovakia they live in 4 separate groups: in northern Spiš (34 villages subdivided in two groups), Orava and Kysuce (2 villages) and smaller groups in 7 other enclave villages in northern Slovakia.

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    Traditional Gorol wooden house (drzewiónka) near Filipka mountain meadow in Silesian Beskids

    Origin and language, dialect

    Gorals are part of a continuum of Carpathian Slavic highlander groups, including Hutsuls, Lemkos, and Boykos. The various dialects spoken by the Gorals descend from Proto-Slavic from the Eastern Lechitic, Old Polish area, superimposed by Slovak. In other words, the language is of Polish origin, but has been influenced by Slovak in recent centuries. In addition to Polish, the language contains some vocabulary of other origins, including Slovak, Vlach, and words of uncertain origin that have cognates in other languages of the Carpathian region. Mazurzenie may occur.

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    Young Gorals of Żywiec (pl: górale żywieccy) during performance at 43rd Week of Beskid Region Culture in Żywiec.

    National identity

    For most Gorals today, the decisive factor in their self-identification with a nationality is not ethnic but territorial. For example, those living in areas under a long tradition of belonging to the Polish state identify themselves as Polish, while those living in Slovakia have identified themselves as Slovaks, with notable exceptions to this rule on both sides of the border. While the origin of the Goral dialect is Polish, the language of Gorals in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic is gradually shifting and increasingly becoming more similar to the literary standard in their respective countries. Gorals of the Czech Republic identify themselves on the nationality level as Poles and are members of the Polish minority in Zaolzie, which is proved by their communal activity – annual Gorolski Święto festival held in Jablunkov (Jabłonków) is a showcase of a local Polish Gorol traditions and is organized by the PZKO (Polish Cultural and Educational Union). This Gorol festival preserves the traditions of the Polish nationality group in Zaolzie. It is the largest cultural and folklore festival in Zaolzie area gathering thousands of spectators each day of festivities.

    However, in none of the towns and villages of the area the Poles form a majority and some local Gorals identify themselves on the nationality level as Czechs. In this respect the village of Hrčava (the second easternmost village in the Czech Republic), with vast majority of citizens declaring Czech nationality, can be mentioned. In this village the Poles form only a 2% minority.

    Local Gorals formed (as indigenous people) a majority in the past. They speak the regional dialect in everyday communication.

    Historically, the issue of their ethnic identity has been controversial and resulted in claims and counterclaims by both Poland and Czechoslovakia. Gorals, like many other peasant communities in Central Europe, determined their own ethnic identities within the nation state system during the 19th and early 20th century. Although nationalist propaganda was generated by both Poles and Slovaks, this process of the Gorals' identification with a nationality was still not complete when the border was finalized in 1924. A notable example were Ferdynand Machay, a priest born in Jabłonka, Orava, Piotr Borowy from Rabča, Orava and Wojciech Halczyn from Lendak, Spiš, who went to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and, during a personal audience, lobbied president Thomas Woodrow Wilson to sign these lands over to Poland. After the world wars, some of the Gorals who had opted for a different national identity to the state they found themselves in emigrated to their chosen side of the border. On the other hand, in the present day, some Gorals opt for the ethnic identity of the neighbouring state, rather than the one they live in.

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    Goral of Podhale – member of Trebunie-Tutki folk band from Zakopane.

    In a wider sense Gorals refers to an ethnographic (or even ethnic) group comprising certain highlanders in the northern Carpathians, more precisely these ethnic groups:

    Gorals in a wider sense

      [li]Hutsuls (in Ukraine and Romania)[/li]
      [li]Lemkos (in Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine)[/li]
      [li]Boykos (in Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia)[/li]
      [li]Gorals of Żywiec (pl: górale żywieccy), Poland[/li]
      [li]Gorals (Gorols) of Cieszyn Silesia in Poland and Czech Republic[/li]
      [li]Gorals in Podhale (pl: górale podhalańscy)[/li]
      [li]Moravian Vlachs (Moravian Wallachia)[/li]

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    Gorals of Żywiec (2008)

    Notable Gorals

      [li]Tomasz Adamek – boxer[/li]
      [li]Stefan Banach – mathematician notable as the founder of modern functional analysis and for the Banach-Tarski paradox[/li]
      [li]Andrzej Dziubek – musician, artist, founder of Norwegian-Polish groups De Press and Holy Toy[/li]
      [li]Juraj Jánošík – outlaw hero[/li]
      [li]Sebastian Karpiel-Bułecka – lead singer of the Polish Goral folk band Zakopower[/li]
      [li]Władysław Orkan – Polish writer from the Young Poland period. He is known as one of the greatest Polish writers from Podhale.[/li]
      [li]Jan Kanty Pawluśkiewicz – Polish composer[/li]
      [li]Józef Tischner, eminent Polish Goral priest and philosopher, author of a number of texts in both literary Polish and Goral. The first chaplain of the Solidarity trade union.[/li]

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    Goral from Zakopane (1938)

    #366278

    Anonymous

    Very interesting thread. Finally Wilkołak rolled up his sleeves. Thanks  :)

    #366279

    Anonymous

    Nice, the whole of Silesians remind me very much on our Croatian Likaners, our Highlanders. I might make a thread about them now! :D

    #366280

    Anonymous

    You have to give them a 10 for reproducing their native costumes.  They seem to be made of authentic wools and such.  So many native costumes look like somebody went to Walmart and bought a red vest.  Very well done indeed.

    I go to Vicksburg, Mississippi every year to watch the US Civil War re-enactors re-fight the US Civil War  and the detail of some of the men and women's clothin is fantastic, the same or the re-enactors in Virginia.  It is clear that some have put hundreds if not thousands of hours into their clothing and character.  These people are a real pleasure to watch.  Then you have the nut who thinks he can order a Uniform and go participate with no knowledge of the subject.

    I think all Slavs should concentrate on not just preserving their music and such, but the groups should be judged by authenticity, such as is the footwear correct, authentic materials used are we really preserving the actual cuture.  Most importantly, do the performers have an in-character speaking time with the audience where they try to pass on what is important in the culture and why it should be passed on.  Distinctions should be made between everyday clothing and party clothing.  Otherwise we risk just becoming another group of costumers.

    In Serbin,Texas the Wendish Heritage Society has done an excellent job of preserving authentic items from the immigration and teaching the young girls how to paint easter eggs, so that they are not just pretty, but in the correct patterns and methods.

    I would be interested in seeing not just how the groups sang, but how they lived and what made them different from their neighbors.  Encouraging that would be a great service this site could provide in the long run.

    I think this would be interesting.

    #366281

    Anonymous

    Joms i couldnt agree more. Some people just dont have taste for such things. Good post Wilkolak.

    #366282

    Anonymous

    Thanks for compliments, everyone! :)

    #366283

    Anonymous

    Hmm… Rep can only be given once each hour to each user and, Wilkolak, I just gave you rep for the Krakow thread 6 minutes ago! In 54 minutes you'll have rep for this! ;)

    #366284

    Anonymous

    Well… many informations about Slovak Gorals are missing in the text, is wikipedia your source? Try this site : http://www.e-targ.org/  This is the only one website in English about Gorals I found.

    Main difference between Slovak and Polish Gorals is, that Slovak Gorals (on Slovak as well as Polish side – there's still a Slovak minority in Poland, after 1920 30 villages with Slovak Gorals came under Poland) had and still have strong Slovak national identity, while Polish Gorals have Polish national identity. An example – if you say to a Goral from Slovakia that he is actually a Pole, then you better run away as fast as possible… The Goral question – if it is possible to call it like that – was a main reason of Slovak-Polish conflict. Except for it there were no other ethnic conflicts between Slovakia and Poland. It's because each of the sides has a completely different view on it.

    #366285

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Well… many informations about Slovak Gorals are missing in the text, is wikipedia your source? Try this site : http://www.e-targ.org/  This is the only one website in English about Gorals I found.

    This is just introduction post so that people see who gorals actually are. There is much other info I want to add later, about cuisine, architecture and other things, so this post wasn't last one yet. You are more than welcome to contribute on Slovak goral customs, traditions and culture as well.

    Main difference between Slovak and Polish Gorals is, that Slovak Gorals (on Slovak as well as Polish side – there's still a Slovak minority in Poland, after 1920 30 villages with Slovak Gorals came under Poland) had and still have strong Slovak national identity, while Polish Gorals have Polish national identity.

    Goral is goral, it makes no difference what country they live in. Their loyalty is to themselves as gorals and then to whatever country they live in. I have no doubt that gorals living in Ukraine, Romania and Czechia also feel loyalty to countries they live in also.

    An example – if you say to a Goral from Slovakia that he is actually a Pole, then you better run away as fast as possible…

    Same if you said to goral from Żywiec or especially Podhale that he is Slovak, you would have to do same thing. ;) That was my point earlier also, about loyalty to country they live in, alongside to loyalty to their own goral folk.

    The Goral question – if it is possible to call it like that – was a main reason of Slovak-Polish conflict. Except for it there were no other ethnic conflicts between Slovakia and Poland. It's because each of the sides has a completely different view on it.

    I personally think it is f***ing stupid to fight over this. According to me, gorals are beautiful people that Poles and Slovaks should cherish as great addition to ethnic makeup of our nations and not fight like stupid children over who gorals originally are or who they belong to more etc. ::) This is exactly why I put this thread in Western Slavs board and not specifically in Poland (or Slovakia), so that Polish and Slovak users (even Ukrainian and Czech users) can contribute something on their gorals also, and also why I specifically called it "Gorals – Slavic higlanders".

    BTW I invite everyone who has something to contribute to please contribute something on this wonderful people. :)

    #366286

    Anonymous

    I know, I just asked what was your source.

    Goral is goral, it makes no difference what country they live in. Their loyalty is to themselves as gorals and then to whatever country they live in. I have no doubt that gorals living in Ukraine, Romania and Czechia also feel loyalty to countries they live in also.

    I'd say rather to the nation first of all than to the country. Even Gypsies can feel loyalty to Slovakia, but they are not Slovaks in no way. But Gorals with Slovak nationality feel like Slovaks, they chose it and proved it many times in history as well as nowadays. Maybe it's different in case of Polish Gorals, I don't know. I'm not saying who is who, if Gorals wouldn't feel it so, then I would be OK with it.

    Same if you said to goral from Żywiec or especially Podhale that he is Slovak, you would have to do same thing.  That was my point earlier also, about loyalty to country they live in, alongside to loyalty to their own goral folk.

    Did it ever happen that somebody claimed Podhale's Gorals to be the Slovaks? Because vice-versa it happened many times. That's why there were even armed conflicts on the borders.

    I personally think it is f***ing stupid to fight over this. According to me, gorals are beautiful people that Poles and Slovaks should cherish as great addition to ethnic makeup of our nations and not fight like stupid children over who gorals originally are or who they belong to more etc.  This is exactly why I put this thread in Western Slavs board and not specifically in Poland (or Slovakia), so that Polish and Slovak users (even Ukrainian and Czech users) can contribute something on their gorals also, and also why I specifically called it "Gorals – Slavic higlanders".

    You're right, it's stupid.. That's why I was disappointed hearing a Pole in Warsaw that he dislikes the Slovaks in south Poland because they still argue about one stupid bus stop in Javorina. I was looking at him like "huh? come on, I'm a Slovak, don't tell me anything like that". ??? Anyway I don't think so, history is history..

    It seems Poles admire and sometimes idealize Gorals. I think there was an author who started the idealization of the Gorals on Polish side. Do you know his name? Well, it's not like that in Slovakia, maybe because there are not such big differences between Gorals and non-Gorals. Like e.g. inhabitants of Terchová (Jánošík was born there) are not Gorals, they don't speak Goral dialect, they speak Central Slovak dialect (one of the most beautiful and typical Slovak dialect), but they have something in common with Gorals in folk costumes, music etc. Various people influence each other. The other thing is that many people in Slovakia live like Gorals – I mean the mountainous life, so it isn't anything extraordinary here. But they are nice people, I agree with you.  ;)

    Gorals are a mixture of various people, even original ones were not pure (after all who is pure?). Then, later they chose their nationality.

    #366287

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    I'd say rather to the nation first of all than to the country. Even Gypsies can feel loyalty to Slovakia, but they are not Slovaks in no way.

    Obviously not, but we are talking about human beings here. ;D

    But Gorals with Slovak nationality feel like Slovaks, they chose it and proved it many times in history as well as nowadays. Maybe it's different in case of Polish Gorals, I don't know.

    It's exactly same thing with Polish gorals, but what I mean is that while Polish gorals see themselves as Poles, they also see themselves as Gorals in same measure, not as only one or other. There is reason why they are called gorals and not just Poles, which is same thing in Slovakia, otherwise, there would be no mention of gorals in Slovakia, only Slovaks. Therefore, same thing here and there. ;)

    Did it ever happen that somebody claimed Podhale's Gorals to be the Slovaks? Because vice-versa it happened many times. That's why there were even armed conflicts on the borders.

    Ah, yes, now I know what you are talking about. ;) It's really just few idiots, nothing more.

    You're right, it's stupid.. That's why I was disappointed hearing a Pole in Warsaw that he dislikes the Slovaks in south Poland because they still argue about one stupid bus stop in Javorina. I was looking at him like "huh? come on, I'm a Slovak, don't tell me anything like that". ??? Anyway I don't think so, history is history..

    Ah, land disputes, cause of more wars, death, destruction, suffering and hatred in Europe than anything other than religion.
    Usually always caused by small handful of chauvinist idiots who are not representative of opinion of general population. ;)

    In other words, ignore idiots like this. Every country has them.

    It seems Poles admire and sometimes idealize Gorals. I think there was an author who started the idealization of the Gorals on Polish side. Do you know his name? Well, it's not like that in Slovakia, maybe because there are not such big differences between Gorals and non-Gorals. Like e.g. inhabitants of Terchová (Jánošík was born there) are not Gorals, they don't speak Goral dialect, they speak Central Slovak dialect (one of the most beautiful and typical Slovak dialect), but they have something in common with Gorals in folk costumes, music etc. Various people influence each other. The other thing is that many people in Slovakia live like Gorals – I mean the mountainous life, so it isn't anything extraordinary here.

    That's because Slovakia is smaller country than Poland with less ethnic variety and mostly mountainous.
    Poland is larger than Slovakia, mostly flat(ish) (aside from South) and we have many very different kinds of ethnic groups here (Mazovians, Kujaws, Kaszubs, Silesians, Mazurs, Gorals etc), that already fact that Gorals are our only mountain folk (other than non-Polish Lemkos) and their uniqueness from more traditional Polish groups (like Mazovians especially), perhaps this is why they are more noticeable in Poland than they are in Slovakia and then why they are more celebrated, I don't know.

    #366288

    Anonymous
    Quote:

    Quote:
    I'd say rather to the nation first of all than to the country. Even Gypsies can feel loyalty to Slovakia, but they are not Slovaks in no way.

    Obviously not, but we are talking about human beings here. ;D

    Hehe, ok it was a bad example, I should use that one with Hungarians  :D

    I just have the impression, Poles perceive Gorals as more distinct group. Why is it so probably you already answered.
    So you don't know the author who dealt with Gorals as the first?

    Ah, yes, now I know what you are talking about.  It's really just few idiots, nothing more.

    Just few idiots.. who often change the history  :)  And that is a paradox, most people can be peaceful, but those idiots just come and make battles between them.

    In other words, ignore idiots like this. Every country has them.

    True, but sometimes I can't, especially if I am faced with them.

    #366289

    Anonymous

    As promised before, small gallery of highlander architecture (churches, houses and "pensjonats" ;D).

    [img width=700 height=526]http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/24835063.jpg”/>

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    [img width=700 height=466]http://www.ezakopane.pl/noclegi/foto/zakopane_domki_tatra_house.jpg”/>

    [img width=700 height=525]http://z-ne.pl/UserFiles/Image/miejsca/Zakopane/Zak_Bulwary_Slowackiego_39_Chata_Tea_AR_05093288-.jpg”/>

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    [img width=700 height=526]http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/24835219.jpg”/>

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    [img width=589 height=700]http://www.swiatobrazu.pl/fotografie/zdjecie/galeria/480073/goacuteralski-koscioacutelek.jpg”/>

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    #366290

    Anonymous

    Small gallery now of highlander folk costumes.

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    [img width=700 height=525]http://files.alfaomega.webnode.com/200003560-129d515d30/krakowiaczek.jpg”/>

    [img width=700 height=224]http://www.goralskie.com.pl/a3.jpg”/>

    [img width=700 height=224]http://www.goralskie.com.pl/a2.jpg”/>

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    [img width=700 height=466]http://festiwal.rzeszow.pl/news/data/upimages/Tancescen2.jpg”/>

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    #366291

    Anonymous

    Here is interesting site with highlander cuisine: http://goralskiejadlo.blogspot.com/
    I will perhaps add some examples here later, since I have done quite some work here, but this site has it all (in Polish though).

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