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- December 28, 2012 at 4:05 pm #344969
PDF File here.
Discuss. For those who don't feel like reading the main points can be summed up like this:
– The Illyrian movement sought to establish a unified national identity among South Slavs divided between two Empires
– Acheiving a unified South Slav language and combating compulsary Hungarian in Croatian schools.
– Became a Croatian nationalist movement to unify Croatian lands but include other South Slavs as part of the movement.
– A lot of Serbs and Slovenes were skeptical because of its Croatian nationalist elements and by this time Serbs and Slovenes had already started forming their own exclusive nationalist movements.
– In the mid 19th century the Illyrian movement became a political force in Croatia and the first concepts of something called Yugoslavism began developing among Croats.
– Most Serb intellectuals in Serbia reacted hostily citing that the 'Illyrian' movement was nothing more than Croat nationalists and that Croats were 'stealing' Serbian culture and heritage by standardizing Stokavian in Croatia. A lot of Serb intellectuals at the time believed all Stokavian speakers were ethnically Serbian regardless of their faith or country they live in. Over time Serb intellectuals saw the Illyrian movement as semi-useful for garnering support and became less hostile.
– Montenegrin response was much like the Serb response. Except for the Catholics who inhabited Boka Kotorska , Montenegro's thinkers did not trust the primarily Catholic and Croatian body of Illyrian intellectuals. Disputes over Boka Kotorska also motivated this sentiment.
-Slovenian response was more positive since they were the same religion and espoused Pan Slavic views but the major factors dividing them from the Croatian Illyrians were that Slovenia had no direct conflict with Hungary and didn't desire one , Slovenians didn't mind a large degree of Austrian rule so long as the Slovene language would be recognized, and there were linguistic differences with the other South Slavs. Slovenes feared that their official language standard might become Croatian / Serbian / Bosnian rather than their own language.
– Bosnian reaction was very positive among Bosnian Catholics and Franciscans , most of whom already reestablished a common identity with Croatians. However, Bosniak nobles ( Bosnian Muslim) who still held power saw the Illyrian intellectuals as intrusion and the Serbs in Bosnia held the same concerns as the Serbs in Serbia/Vojvodina. Over all Bosnia had the most positive reaction of all of Croatia's neighbors ( not including the divided Croatian providence of Dalmatia- then under direct Austrian administration) but that's likely due to the sizeable group of Catholics and Croats present there.
– Dalmatian reaction was mostly positive as to be expected but in Dalmatia there were another brand of Croatian nationalists that were more extreme and less inclusive of other Slavs. They saw no point in espousing any kind of Yugoslav kinship nor any kind of autonomy within the AH Empire but simply outright Croatian independence based on a Republican model. Their main problem with it was that they saw no reason why the Croatian version of Stokavian ( previously known as Western Stokavian as to distinguish it from the Eastern that Serbs spoke) ought to be called 'Illyrian' and not simply 'Croatian.'
Regardless the Illyrian movement did pick up steam and was a far more popular movement in Croatia than the alternative form of nationalism espoused by Starcevic , a more exclusive kind. They were Pan Slavic and laid the foundations for Yugoslavian ideals ( though not monarchist Serbian as first Yugoslavia nor communist as second) but rather a more localized form.
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