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  • #343911

    Anonymous

    [size=18pt]The Kozolec (Hayrack)[/size]

    The hayrack or kozolec is an ancient structure, retaining an archaic mode of building. It has developed in construction and functionality together with the development of farming methods during the 18th and 19th centuries, but it was described and recorded as a well established uniquely Slovenian farming structure in the middle of the 17th century by Matevž Merian and Janez Vajkard Valvasor.

    Slovenia's landscape is characterized and defined by the hayrack to the an extent that it has become a national icon. It is seen everywhere in Slovenia, except in Prekmurje and parts of Primorska, where the dry climate and strong winds make it both unnecessary and unpracticable. It appears on greeting cards, paintings and photographs, and immediately identifies a landscape as Slovenian.

    It was the impressionist painter Ivan Grohar (1867 – 1911), who had painted the hayrack as an essential and defining image of Slovenian countryside. It was due to his perception that the kozolec became a part of the cultural as well as physical landscape of Slovenia.

    The hayrack is a supremely practical farming tool, intended to make farmer's work easier, and to preserve the produce of the land. The ground in the Alpine and hilly areas can be damp, therefore corn, wheat and hay are hung from the racks, allowing the wind to do the drying faster and more thoroughly.

    There are many different types of Slovenian hayracks: single ones standing alone or with sloped 'lean-to' roofs, parallel and stretched ones, and double hayracks (toplarji), often with roofs and storage areas on top. Simple hayracks are not unknown in other parts of Alpine Central Europe, but toplarji, decorated or plain are unique to Slovenia. An ancient part of Slovenian heritage, the hayrack is still very much part of the present day agricultural practice, admirably combining functionality, aesthetics and sentiment.

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Kozolec_toplar_Bistrica.jpg/400px-Kozolec_toplar_Bistrica.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.mozirskigaj.com/files/mozirskigaj/userfiles/galerije/KOZOLEC/kozolec2.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.bucka.info/dediscina/kozolec.JPG” />[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/10000/nahled/311-1216804531cqJi.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://i1.trekearth.com/photos/10368/kozolec.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://s7.mojalbum.com/4206027_17427226_18453971/kozolec/18453971.jpg” />[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.kozolci.si/media/img/kozolci/v/kozolec_na_vrhu.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.kozolci.si/media/img/kozolci/v/kozolec_v_praprotnici.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3370/3438257143_e897a0a078.jpg” />[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2526/3974756815_8aaaf58f62.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://miranamon.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/cx_0007_025.jpg%3Fw%3D810″ />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.eposavje.com/arhiv/images/2009/09/on/09-kozolec-dov-v.jpg” />[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://farm1.static.flickr.com/31/43705774_e9c9c69ba6.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://peskar.org/model_trains/kozolec/ssa50565.jpg” />[/td]
    [td][img width=220 height=160]http://www.destinacije.com/Slike/Slovenija/GradevineiObjekti/Kozolec.JPG” />[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    #393979

    Anonymous

    A great thread, mate! Indeed the kozolci are very beautiful and we all like their look. The "toplarji" can mostly be seen in Štajerska and Dolenjska. In Gorenjska you can see only single hayracks. They really are very practical and they add the final touch to our landscape. :)

    #393980

    Anonymous

    I have good memories from the times we used to celebrate birthdays under the kozolec with my relatives in Savinjska.

    #393981

    Anonymous

    Nice. I was reading about this and the page said that they don't exist in Prekmurje. Any reason why?

    #393982

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Nice. I was reading about this and the page said that they don't exist in Prekmurje. Any reason why?

    Weather is drier in Prekmurje. In those areas where Kozolec exists there are quite special weather conditions. Hence evolution of of Kozolec. I don't know in details anymore since i forgot but i will report when i find out.

    #393983

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Nice. I was reading about this and the page said that they don't exist in Prekmurje. Any reason why?

    Like Povhec sayed, there is drier climate. So the mown grass dries already on the fields. Elsewhere it would simply rot if left on the filed – because of the moisture and rain. So people put in on chariots and drove it to the nearest Kozolec. Then they hung it upon the passes and let it dry. SInce it was under a roof the effect of the weather wasn't big.
    image

    #393984

    Anonymous

    Btw we have Toplar in my family too. :D I don't dare to post it becouse i want to keep my privacy on. :)

    [img height=400]http://www.burger.si/Vojnik/SlikaToplar.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://beta.finance-on.net/galerije/1474/toplar.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/68/Toplar_Hipped_Roof.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://www.barjan.si/f/pics/turizem/Robeznikov_Toplar_b.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://www.visitljubljana.com/file/370678/smartnoprilitiji_toplar.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://www.podarimo.si/slike/slika11285141998.jpg” />

    [img width=700 height=467]http://www.drustvo-preska.si/slike%20gl/Preska_kozolci_Lisec.jpg” />

    [img width=700 height=466]http://www.kozolci.si/media/img/kozolci/v/ziherletov_toplar.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/5652532.jpg” />

    [img height=400]http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/28641068.jpg” />

    #393985

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Btw we have Toplar in my family too. :D I don't dare to post it becouse i want to keep my privacy on. :)

    Baraba! Kozuc maš domä! 😮 Lucky fellow, must say.

    #393986

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Baraba! Kozuc maš domä! 😮 Lucky fellow, must say.

    Yeah. :D Nowdays since we don't engage with farming, due to the fact most of our land was inherited by other relative, so we use it as car garage and to store various things. XD

    #393987

    Anonymous

    Another similar structure is the "stog", found very often in Bohinjska Dolina. In Lithuanian the same word means "roof", and obviously Šavli made a whole conspiracy theory out of it.

    [IMG]http://i48.tinypic.com/2cegq9s.jpg” />

    #393988

    Anonymous

    Yes upper Gorenjci, Ziljani, etc. call Toplar basically Stog, they usually tend to be simpler. :)

    #393989

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Yes upper Gorenjci, Ziljani, etc. call Toplar basically Stog, they usually tend to be simpler. :)

    Yes, but the stog to me seems much more "sturdier" than the toplar. Although I have never seen both, I've only seen Kozouci so far.

    [IMG]http://i50.tinypic.com/2h2qo84.jpg” />

    #393990

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Yes, but the stog to me seems much more "sturdier" than the toplar. Although I have never seen both, I've only seen Kozouci so far.

    [IMG]http://i50.tinypic.com/2h2qo84.jpg” />

    Stog's aren't neccesarlly with stone. In fact most are fully wooden, stone Kozolci or Stogi are typical in areas like Venetian Slovenia, Goriška area, etc. While in Bohinj, Rabeljska and Ziljska they are wooden. Difference is only in name, its a form of regional name therefore. There are also other names no just Stog and Kozolec altho atm i am to lazy to find that book where those names are mentioned. I will report however. In Studor locals call them Stogi altho on these links it's wrriten Kozolci, etc. Also black and white pic is from Ziljska;

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Studor.jpg , http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/KozolciStudor1.JPG , http://www.etno-muzej.si/files/oc/sustersic/6242.jpg , http://www.slovenia.info/pictures%5CTB_attractions%5C1%5C2009%5CKozolci_227508.jpg , http://www.pojdimo.com/cesar/slike/studor/bohinj_studor1.jpg

    #393991

    Anonymous

    Some toplarji in Styria also have stone "legs", if you know what I mean. I also heard of the name "Krajner/Krainer" for a kozolec. Could that be simply the name for the usual single standing kozolec?

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