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  • #341916

    Anonymous

    [img width=700 height=437]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Flag_of_Warsaw.svg/800px-Flag_of_Warsaw.svg.png”/>

    History of names of Slavic capital cities.
    Bratislava – Slovakia[/color]
    From Preslava to Bratislava
    Assumed background of the name Bratislava
    864
    The first written reference to the Devín Castle* (Dowina) in the Fuldish Annals.
    * Devín castle is situated close to Bratislava.

    900 (around)
    Devín castle was probably owned by the (originally) Lower Pannonian prince Bräslav (Braslav, Brazlaw) – or by a magnate of the same name – who was a vassal of Bavaria.
    Pressburg/Brezalauspurc is a distortion of Predeslausburg, a name derived from Predslav, who was (according to some historians) the ruler of Bratislava around 900 and the 3rd son of King Svätopluk.

    907
    The first written reference to Bratislava as Braslavespurch and Brezalauspurc in connection with the battle(s) of Bratislava; in the Annals of Salzburg.

    1000 (around)
    Coins with the inscriptions PHANUS REX (King Stephen I.) and RESLAVVA CIV (Preslavva civitas) were found in Sweden; the coins were probably minted in (P)RESLAVVA CIV(ITAS) (i.e., in the town of Bratislava) by King Stephen I.

    1052
    The name of Bratislava as Preslavvaspurch in Altašské anály.

    16. century
    Aventinus mentions Vratislaburgium as one of the castles of Prince Pribina, town was built by Prince Uratislaus (Vratislav) in 805/807.

    19. century
    Contemporary name Bratislava originates from Šafárik's philological reconstruction of its medieval name.

    The other names

    Istropolis around 850 : Ister – Danube, polis – city -> City at Danube. Ister means River of Life. Name comes from time of Christianization by Greeks. Later used by King Matthias Corvinus in 15th cent. Well-known university Academia Istropolitana.

    Pisonium in Latin arose later, probably derived from Slavic Prince Božan. 1045 Bosenburg; 1108 Bosania, Posonia, Possen (Czech source), Bossen (manuscript from Stockholm); 1143 Bosonium; 1146 Bosan; 1194 Poson…
    Nowadays Pozsony (1808) in Magyar.

    Preßburg in German in 16th cent. 1773 Presburh. It originates in Prespurch (1147) <- from Slavic Preslavvaspurch (1052) <- Preslavva civitas (1000) – that means City of Pre(d)slav (see Slavic names from Slovakia)

    Coat-of-arms of Bratislava
    image
    Flag of Bratislava
    image

    #358063

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Contemporary name Bratislava originates from Šafárik's philological reconstruction of its medieval name.

    "The modern Slovak name Bratislava, however, is assumed to be derived (by mistake) from the name of the Czech ruler Bretislav I."
    So you should return name to Preslava, since Šafarik made mistake :D



    [size=14pt]Banja Luka or Banjaluka, capital of Republika Srpska[/size]
    image

    Several localities around city, from ancient times (Illyrians, Celts, Romans), there is a substantial evidence of the Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries A.D., including an old fort "Kastel" (Castra, lat.) in the centre of the city Banja Luka.

    1224. First time mention Vrbaski grad (city on river Vrbas, were modern Banja Luka is)
    1494. 6th February, first mention of Banja Luka in the Charter of the Hungarian king Vladislav II Jagiellonian, name interpreted as Ban's (military title) meadow.

    "The identity of the ban and the meadow in question remain uncertain, and popular etymology combines the modern words banja ("bath" or "spa"), or bajna ("marvelous") and luka ("port"). A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name "Lukácsbanya", i.e. "Luke's Mine", which is also the meaining of Slovak "Banja Luka"."

    #358064

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Bratislava – Slovakia

    Since I was a kid, and I first heard the name of Bratislava, it always sounded like BRAT – I – SLAVA to me, which would mean literally: BROTHER – AND – GLORY.

    "What a cool name", I thought…

    #358065

    Anonymous

    Heh yeah :) there are many examples of original words interpreted in other way. We can understand their meaning quite well, but their roots are sometimes totally different, like e.g. a name of castle Lietava would mean that the castle could fly, but its original name was Litwa or Lethawa derived from name of Goddess Lada.

    A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name "Lukácsbanya", i.e. "Luke's Mine", which is also the meaining of Slovak "Banja Luka".

    A mine was the first, that I had imagine within the context of Banja Luka. Baňa means a mine and there are cities and villages with this name like Banská Bystrica, Banská Štiavnica, Nová Baňa, Banský Studenec etc. Slovak mines were the most important for the whole Kingdom of Hungary. Is or was there in Banja Luka a mine?

    #358066

    Anonymous

    Podgorica

    Podgorica (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [pɔ̝̌dgɔ̝ri̞ʦa]; English: /pɒdɡɒˈriːtsə/ pod-gorr-ree-tsə; Montenegrin: Podgorica, Подгорица, lit. "under the small hill"), is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.

    Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and the meeting point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement. The city is close to winter ski centres in the north and seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea.

    A census in 2011 put the city's population at 151,312. The Podgorica Municipality contains 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and 29.9% of its population. It is the administrative centre of Montenegro and its economic, cultural and educational focus.

    The name Podgorica means "under the Gorica" in the Montenegrin language. Gorica (meaning "little hill" or hillock) is the name of the cypress-covered hill that overlooks the city centre.

    Some three kilometres (1.9 miles) north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of Doclea, a town known in Greek, pre-Roman and Roman times. The Roman Emperor Diocletian came from this region. In later centuries, Romans "corrected" the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an "i" had been lost in vulgar speech. "Duklja" is the later (Slavic) version of that word.

    When founded (before the 11th century), the town was called Birziminium. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica. The name Podgorica was used from 1326. From 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd in honor of Josip Broz Tito, the former President of Yugoslavia.

    In the 19th century the city used the arms below, showing a ruin. It represents Doclea, the ruins of the ancient Roman city on which Podgorica was built. The first name of Montenegro was Duklja (Doclea).

    image

    The previous arms were adopted in the 1970s. The composition represents the Monument of a Partizan Fighter and the Queen Milena's bridge over the river Ribnica.

    image

    Current coat of arms 

    image

    #358067

    Anonymous

    Warszawa

    image

    Flag of Warszawa:

    image

    Emblem of Warszawa:

    image

    Motto of Warszawa: Semper invicta  (Latin "Always undefeated")

    Hymn of Warszawa: Waszawianka (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warszawianka_(1831))

    Population of Warszawa: 2,631,902

    Denonym of inhabitant of Warszawa: Varsovian

    Date Warszawa became capital of Poland: 1596 (before was Kraków)

    Etonym of Warszawa's name: Warsaw's name in the Polish language, Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa), means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the Slavic male name Warcisław; see also etymology of Wrocław. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman Wars and his wife Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River who Wars fell in love with. Actually, Warsz was a 12th/13th century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of today's Mariensztat neighbourhood.

    History of founding of Warszawa: The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century). After Jazdów was raided, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Płock prince Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern Warsaw, about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the capital of Masovia in 1413.Fourteenth-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Polish Crown in 1526.

    #358068

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    A mine was the first, that I had imagine within the context of Banja Luka. Baňa means a mine and there are cities and villages with this name like Banská Bystrica, Banská Štiavnica, Nová Baňa, Banský Studenec etc. Slovak mines were the most important for the whole Kingdom of Hungary. Is or was there in Banja Luka a mine?

    Well about 40km around there are few mines, so maybe that etymology is correct.

    Quote:
    Warszawa

    Nice legend and city emblem.

    #358069

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Well about 40km around there are few mines, so maybe that etymology is correct.

    "A different interpretation is suggested by the Hungarian name "Lukácsbanya", i.e. "Luke's Mine", which is also the meaning of Slovak Banja Luka."

    .. just wanted to say else that Luka does not mean any name Luke nor Lukáč in Slovak, but it's a meadow just like in your language. So there are mines under meadows? That sounds more logical than a mine of some unknown Lucas.

    #358070

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    .. just wanted to say else that Luka does not mean any name Luke nor Lukáč in Slovak, but it's a meadow just like in your language. So there are mines under meadows? That sounds more logical than a mine of some unknown Lucas.

    Well luka nowdays means port, often word for meadow is "livada", about mines under meadows, maybe, I'm not sure.

    #358071

    Anonymous
    Quote:

    Quote:
    .. just wanted to say else that Luka does not mean any name Luke nor Lukáč in Slovak, but it's a meadow just like in your language. So there are mines under meadows? That sounds more logical than a mine of some unknown Lucas.

    Well luka nowdays means port, often word for meadow is "livada", about mines under meadows, maybe, I'm not sure.

    I'm sorry, I'm like a blind…

    #358072

    Anonymous

    image
    Zagreb/Agram

    Our Capital Zagreb/Agram was originally a two separate cities. The one on the hill below the mountain Sljeme was called Gradec (meaning little city) while the one under was later being populated during the Ottoman wars…eventually the Gradec and the lower part merged together in one large city and later there is a legend that it got name Zagreb because when our Ban Jelačić was marching to one battle he asked a young girl to grab him a bit of water from the well Manduševac (grab = Zagrabiti on Croatian) and thus the name comes from, Zagrabiti(grab)=Zagreb, in memory of that event. Agram is how Germanics called this Croatian city and thus the town in Germanic lands was known as Agram, but even many native locals called it Agram. Today both names are used.

    The second largest city, Split in Dalmatia, he got his name from bananasplit… j/k :D it dates way back in the time of Greeks, it was a little Greek colony, then being overrun by Romans and Illyrians, and on end being invaded and conqured by Slavs till this day. Name was Spalatos .

    #358073

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    1000 (around)
    Coins with the inscriptions PHANUS REX (King Stephen I.) and PRESLAVVA CIV (Preslavva civitas) were found in Sweden; the coins were probably minted in PRESLAVVA CIV(ITAS) (i.e., in the town of Bratislava) by King Stephen I.

    Mentioned coin Preslavva Civ. (Bratislava city)

    image

    #358074

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    History of names of Slavic capital cities.
    _______________________________

    [size=12pt]Bratislava – Slovakia[/size]

    From Preslava to Bratislava

    Assumed background of the name Bratislava

    864
    The first written reference to the Devín Castle* (Dowina) in the Fuldish Annals.
    * Devín castle is situated close to Bratislava.

    900 (around)
    Devín castle was probably owned by the (originally) Lower Pannonian prince Bräslav (Braslav, Brazlaw) – or by a magnate of the same name – who was a vassal of Bavaria.
    Pressburg/Brezalauspurc is a distortion of Predeslausburg, a name derived from Predslav, who was (according to some historians) the ruler of Bratislava around 900 and the 3rd son of King Svätopluk.

    907
    The first written reference to Bratislava as Braslavespurch and Brezalauspurc in connection with the battle(s) of Bratislava; in the Annals of Salzburg.

    1000 (around)
    Coins with the inscriptions PHANUS REX (King Stephen I.) and RESLAVVA CIV (Preslavva civitas) were found in Sweden; the coins were probably minted in (P)RESLAVVA CIV(ITAS) (i.e., in the town of Bratislava) by King Stephen I.

    1052
    The name of Bratislava as Preslavvaspurch in Altašské anály.

    16. century
    Aventinus mentions Vratislaburgium as one of the castles of Prince Pribina, town was built by Prince Uratislaus (Vratislav) in 805/807.

    19. century
    Contemporary name Bratislava originates from Šafárik's philological reconstruction of its medieval name.

    The other names

    Istropolis around 850 : Ister – Danube, polis – city -> City at Danube. Ister means River of Life. Name comes from time of Christianization by Greeks. Later used by King Matthias Corvinus in 15th cent. Well-known university Academia Istropolitana.

    Pisonium in Latin arose later, probably derived from Slavic Prince Božan. 1045 Bosenburg; 1108 Bosania, Posonia, Possen (Czech source), Bossen (manuscript from Stockholm); 1143 Bosonium; 1146 Bosan; 1194 Poson…
    Nowadays Pozsony (1808) in Magyar.

    Preßburg in German in 16th cent. 1773 Presburh. It originates in Prespurch (1147) <- from Slavic Preslavvaspurch (1052) <- Preslavva civitas (1000) – that means City of Pre(d)slav (see Slavic names from Slovakia)

    Coat-of-arms of Bratislava
    image
    Flag of Bratislava
    image

    Hungarians Used the name Pozsony, Austrians/Germans called it Presburg. After WW1, The town almost got the name Wilsonovo, if I remember correct :) Anyway, Bratislava is a nice city, seen it once ^^

    #358075

    Anonymous
    [size=12pt]БЕОГРАД / BEOGRAD[/size]
    former capital of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as well as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    Today the capital of Serbia

    image

    [hr]

    Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd) literally translates into "The White City".

    It's name was first mentioned in the year 878 under the name Beligrad (slav. Bjelgrad). It became the main capital of the Serbs in the year 1405. The first capital was Ras, capital of Rascia. The adjective white came from the main fortress that was made out of white stone.

    Names through history
    Belgrade has had many different names throughout history, and in nearly all languages the name translates as "the white city". Serbian name Beograd is a compound of beo (“white, light”) and grad (“town, city”), and etymologically corresponds to several other city names spread throughout the Slavdom: Belgorod, Białogard, Biograd etc. It's arabic name in the time of the Ottoman occupation was "Dar al Jihad" or "The House of War".

    Interesting facts
    Belgrade is known for being the most often attacked city in Europe. The Times reported that Europe's best nightlife can be found in buzzing Belgrade. In the Lonely Planet "1000 Ultimate Experiences" guide of 2009, Belgrade was placed at the 1st spot among the top 10 party cities in the world. (I personally found it hard to believe, but tourists I met say it is true)

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img height=250]http://www.ifmsa-serbia.org/en/images/bg/01b.jpg”/>[/td]
    [td][img height=250]http://www.enterserbia.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/belgrade1.jpg”/>[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    #358076

    Anonymous
    Quote:

    [size=12pt]БЕОГРАД / BEOGRAD[/size]
    former capital of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as well as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    Today the capital of Serbia

    image

    [hr]

    Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd) literally translates into "The White City".

    It's name was first mentioned in the year 878 under the name Beligrad (slav. Bjelgrad). It became the main capital of the Serbs in the year 1405. The first capital was Ras, capital of Rascia. The adjective white came from the main fortress that was made out of white stone.

    Names through history
    Belgrade has had many different names throughout history, and in nearly all languages the name translates as "the white city". Serbian name Beograd is a compound of beo (“white, light”) and grad (“town, city”), and etymologically corresponds to several other city names spread throughout the Slavdom: Belgorod, Białogard, Biograd etc. It's arabic name in the time of the Ottoman occupation was "Dar al Jihad" or "The House of War".

    Interesting facts
    Belgrade is known for being the most often attacked city in Europe. The Times reported that Europe's best nightlife can be found in buzzing Belgrade. In the Lonely Planet "1000 Ultimate Experiences" guide of 2009, Belgrade was placed at the 1st spot among the top 10 party cities in the world. (I personally found it hard to believe, but tourists I met say it is true)

    [table]
    [tr]
    [td][img height=250]http://www.ifmsa-serbia.org/en/images/bg/01b.jpg”/>[/td]
    [td][img height=250]http://www.enterserbia.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/belgrade1.jpg”/>[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    Thought Literally translate means "White Castle"  Once this is occupied by Huns too, called "Nándorfehérvár" "Nándor" is nothing to do with Serbs, but "Fehérvár" is the translation of Beograd

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