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  • #344034

    Anonymous

    Kutná Hora – Sedlec Ossuary

    Kutná Hora

    Kutná Hora is a city situated in the Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia, which is now part of the Czech Republic.

    History

    The town began in 1142 with the settlement of the first Cistercian monastery in Bohemia, Sedlec Monastery, brought from the Imperial immediate Cistercian Waldsassen Abbey. By 1260 German miners began to mine for silver in the mountain region, which they named Kuttenberg, and which was part of the monastery property. The name of the mountain is said to have derived from the monks' cowls (the Kutten) or from the word mining (kutání in old Czech). Under Abbot Heinrich Heidenreich the territory greatly advanced due to the silver mines which gained importance during the economic boom of the 13th century.

    The earliest traces of silver have been found dating back to the 10th century, when Bohemia already had been in the crossroads of long-distance trade for many centuries. Silver dinars have been discovered belonging to the period between 982-995 in the settlement of Malín, which is now a part of Kutná Hora.

    From the 13th to 16th centuries the city competed with Prague economically, culturally and politically. Since 1995 the city center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    In 1300 when King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia issued the new royal mining code Ius regale montanorum. This was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines.[3] The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite Wars in 1419 was the second most important city in Bohemia, after Prague, having become the favourite residence of several Bohemian kings. It was here that, on January 18, 1409, Wenceslaus IV signed the famous Decree of Kutná Hora, by which the Czech university nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other nations.

    In 1420 Emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites during the Hussite Wars, leading to the Battle of Kutná Hora. Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) was taken by Jan Žižka, and after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites. Žižka nonetheless took the place, and under Bohemian auspices it awoke to a new period of prosperity.

    Along with the rest of Bohemia, Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) passed to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In 1546 the richest mine was hopelessly flooded; in the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I the city lost all its privileges; repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin. Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the town became impoverished, and in 1770 was devastated by fire. The mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century.

    At Kuttenberg (Kutna Hora) Prague groschen were minted until 1547.

    Kuttenberg became part of the Austrian Empire in 1806 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1866. The city became part of Czechoslovakia after World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Kutná Hora was incorporated into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany from 1939–1945, but was restored to Czechoslovakia after World War II. The city became part of the Czech Republic in 1993 during the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

    Architecture

    Kutná Hora and the neighboring town of Sedlec are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the most important buildings in the area are the Gothic, five-naved St. Barbara's Church, begun in 1388, and the Italian Court, formerly a royal residence and mint, which was built at the end of the 13th century. The Gothic Stone Haus, which since 1902 has served as a museum, contains one of the richest archives in the country. The Gothic St. James's Church, with its 86 metre tower, is another prominent building. Sedlec is the site of the Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady and the famous Ossuary.
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    Sedlec
    :

    The oldest part of Kutná HoraSedlec – is a place, where the history of Royal Silver town Kutná Hora has begun. The landlord Miroslav from Markvartice ask the Cistercian order to establish the monastery here in 1142. The Miroslav´s fundation for the new monastery was really estated – a lot of lands and woods around Sedlec and even some villages belonged to it. And a few years later, when the silver ore was found mainly there, the profits from renting the lands for mining earned a huge richness to Cistercian monastery in Sedlec. There is no monk in monastery in these days and Kutná Hora is not a Royal silver town any more, but we can still admire great cathedrals, churches, gloriously buildings and monuments, which were built and erected thanks to the unimaginable welth…

    There are two very coveted churches in Sedlec – The Cemetery church of All Saints with the Ossuary and Unesco Herritage listed Cathedral of Assumption of Our Lady and Saint John the Baptist. Administration of these sights attaches to the Roman Catholic Parish in Sedlec.

    And because a large amount of visitors all over the year requires an appropriate services, the Parish also administrates an Infocentre near by – visitors of Sedlec can find all important information about the town and the surroundings there, and also all arranging of guide service, concerts, experience program or the permits for filming in the churches are accomplished there.
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    The Cemetery Church of All Saints with the Ossuary

    A cistercian monastery was founded near here in the year 1142. One of the principal tasks of the monks was the cultivation of the grounds and lands around the monastery. In 1278 King Otakar II of Bohemia sent Henry, the abbot of Sedlec , on a diplomatic mission to the Holy Land. When leaving Jerusalem Henry took with him a handful of earth from Golgotha which he sprinkled over the cemetery of Sedlec monastery, consequently the cemetery became famous, not only in Bohemia but also throughout Central Europe and many wealthy people desired to be buried here.The burial ground was enlarged during the epidemics of plague in the 14 th century (e.g.in 1318 about 30 000 people were buried here) and also during the Hussite wars in first quarter of the 15 th. century.

    After 1400 one of the abbots had a church of All -Saints erected in Gothic style in the middle of the cemetery and under it a chapel destined for the deposition of bones from abolished graves, a task which was begun by a half blind Cistercian monk after the year 1511. The charnel-house was remodelled in Czech Baroque style between 1703 – I710 by the famous Czech architect, of the Italian origin ,Jan Blažej SANTIM-Aichl. The present arrangement of the bones dates from 1870 and is the work of a Czech wood-carver, František RINT (you can see his name, put together from bones, on the right-hand wall over the last bench).
    Our ossuary contains the remains of about 40 000 people. The largest collections of bones are arranged in the form of bells in the four corners of the chapel.

    The most interesting creations by Master Rint are the chandelier in the centre of the nave, containing all the bones of the human body , two monstrances beside the main altar and the coat-of arms of the Schwarzenberg noble family on the left-hand side of the chapel.

    http://www.ossuary.eu/index.php/en/
    http://www.artgraphica.net/art-shop/prague-kutna-hora-bone-church.htm
    http://www.sedlecossuary.com/Photo-gallery.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kutn%C3%A1_Hora

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    [img width=700 height=519]http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_D-W53RJrziU/TSxAIvl3mEI/AAAAAAAADx4/yM62d0eZleA/s1600/SedlecOssuaryEntrance.jpg”/>

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    [img width=700 height=466]http://www.sterf.be/wp-content/gallery/sedlec-ossuary/sedlec-ossuary-03-augustus-2007-14u28.jpg”/>

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    [img width=466 height=700]http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Uq6QYIUKGMM/SupiFQHjQPI/AAAAAAAAEkU/aR_m1Ms9JZU/s1600/sedlec-ossuary-03-augustus-2007-14u42.jpg”/>

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    #395939

    Anonymous

    Jan Švankmajer's short movie about Kutná Hora's Ossuary:
    Kostnice (The Ossuary) Jan Svankmajer 1970 (eng)

    #395940

    Anonymous

    one cant deny christians they are/were quite morbid… with all the procession with bones of supposed "saints" and kissing them, the symbol of crucifix, a torture device (the original christian symbol, the fish.. is much better ha!) and now this.. I've been in one in Austria.. its quite interesting, but still very morbid. I'd burn the bones, not build altars or coat of arms out of them  if there would be too many bones  ;D

    #395941

    Anonymous

    Skull Chapel in Kudowa Zdrój, Czermna (Poland)

    Kudowa-Zdrój [kuˈdɔva ˈzdrui̯] (German: Bad Kudowa, Czech: Chudoba) is a town situated in the foothills of the Stołowe Mountains in the southwestern part of Poland, in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, about 400 m above sea level. It has a population of about 10,000. It is located right at the Polish-Czech border, just across from the Czech town of Náchod, and some 40 km west of Kłodzko.

    Kudowa-Zdrój is a historic spa town where heart and circulation system diseases were cured. In the downtown area, there is a park, styled on 17th century revival, with exotic plants and a mineral water pump room. Due to its location, the town is a used as a place for tourism, walking, biking, and as the departure point for trips. Among notable locations of the region is The Chapel of Skulls and The Moving Nativity Scene in Czermna, The Basilica in Wambierzyce, The Bear Cave in Kletno or the heritage park in Pstrążna as well the natural surroundings of the nearby Table Mountains. It is situated 3 kilometers from the centre of the town to the Czech border and about 140 kilometers to Praha, the capital of the Czech Republic.

    History of Kudowa-Zdrój

    Kudowa-Zdrój is one of the oldest spa resorts in Poland and Europe[1]. It is first mentioned in a document by Henry the Older, son of the Hussite Czech king George of Podebrady[1]. The original name of the village was Lipolitov, but in the mid-16th century it was changed to Chudoba, later on Kudoba (Cudoba in 19th century), Bad Kudowa and in 1945 into Kudowa-Zdrój[1].

    The oldest part of Kudowa is Czermna, dating back to the 16th century. The first record of a mineral waters in the area comes from 1580 from the chronicles of Louis of Náchod, under the name Cermenske Lazne[1].

    In 1625 (or, as some sources say, as early as 1621), G. Aelurius, a Protestant Lutheran monk in his work "Glaciografia" writes about the great taste of the mineral waters from Kudowa, how healthy they were and that they were used for winemaking[1].

    The first owner of the spa was a former military commander from Thirty Years War Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583–1634), and after him his brother-in-law Count A. E. Terzky from Nachod in Bohemia[1].

    Devices for healing baths were known from 1630, and made from wood. A scholary description of Kudowa's waters was made by doctor Kramer in scientific work from 1694. In 1777 a publishing company from Breslau „Kornów” printed a Polish guide describing Kudowa, written by Daniel Vogl[1].

    In 1847 Kudowa was visited by 300 patients. In 1850 A. Duflos made a chemical analysis of the local waters and claimed they have healing traits. Local doctor J. Jacob, helped in establishing the thesis that Kudowa is a spa helping of heart related diseases, which made significant impact of the number of people visiting the town. In 1900 the number of people who visited was 4,150[1]. A famous visitor of the town was Helmut von Moltke together with his family. Thanks to development of business organizations, a railway line to Glatz and a local power plant the spa grew and in 1906 8.000 visitors attended its facilities[1]. Among the guests one of the more famous people was Winston Churchill.[1] In 1920 the Gebrüder Martin und Paul Polka O.H.G. company bought the largest spa resort of the town. From 1911 to 1931 Raphael Friedeberg worked as a physician in the Spa.[2]

    In 1871-1945 Bad Kudowa in the county of Glatz was part of the state of Germany as Bad Kudowa in the province of Lower Silesia. After 1945 most German inhabitants were forcibly expelled and replaced by Polish settlers. After becoming part of Poland it received city rights for the first time in its history[1]. Before 1945 a minority of ethnic Czechs lived in Kudowa-Zdrój (then Bad Kudowa). Small groups of Germans and Czechs continued to live in Kudowa until 1960, and a German school and a Czech-speaking school existed in the town from 1951–1960 and from 1947-1955.

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    History of chapel

    The chapel was built in 1776 by the local parish priest Wacław Tomaszek. It is the mass grave of people who died during the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648), three Silesian Wars (1740–1763), as well as of people who died because of cholera epidemics and hunger.

    Together with J. Schmidt and J. Langer, Tomaszek collected the casualties’ bones and put them in the chapel. Walls of this small, baroque church are filled with three thousand skulls, and there are also bones of another 21 thousand people interred in the basement. The skulls of people who built the chapel are placed in the centre of the building and on the altar.

    It is the only such monument in Poland, and one of three in Europe.[citation needed] It is situated in one of the oldest villages in Kłodzko County, near Kudowa Zdrój, in the Lower Silesia, Poland.

    [img width=700 height=467]http://foto.poland.gov.pl/cache/imgs/_w800/gallery/image/kaplica_czaszek_1_.jpg” />

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skull_Chapel_in_Czermna
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kudowa-Zdr%C3%B3j

    #395942

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Skull Chapel in Kudowa Zdrój, Czermna (Poland) …

    I was in Czermna as a teenager. It was terrible experience for me  image

    #395943

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    I was in Czermna as a teenager. It was terrible experience for me  image

    What an emoticon, Prelja  :D! I want to go this autumn in Kudowa Zdroj, to see the chapel and the skansen there.

    #395944

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    What an emoticon, Prelja  :D! I want to go this autumn in Kudowa Zdroj, to see the chapel and the skansen there.

    You must have strong nerves  ;D

    #395945

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    You must have strong nerves  ;D

    I hope that I will manage :). I'm so curious. I know about  Czermna for more than 2 years and each time when I wanted to see it something happened. But this time I will see the chapel!

    #395946

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    I hope that I will manage :). I'm so curious. I know about  Czermna for more than 2 years and each time when I wanted to see it something happened. But this time I will see the chapel!

    Mam nadzieję, że będziesz zadowolona z wycieczki  :)

    #395947

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Mam nadzieję, że będziesz zadowolona z wycieczki  :)

    Ja też mam nadzieję. Dziękuję za lekcję polskiego. Nie wiedziałam co to znaczy z wycieczki :).

    #395948

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Mam nadzieję, że będziesz zadowolona z wycieczki  :)

    Rety, do tej pory myślałem, że to facet!

    Zmiana na narodowe języki okazuje się przydatna.

    #395949

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Rety, do tej pory myślałem, że to facet!

    Zmiana na narodowe języki okazuje się przydatna.

    Jak to facet? Przecież płeć ma wyraźnie określoną w swoim profilu  :D

    #395950

    Anonymous

    Wiem, ale sam siebie utwierdziłem w przekonaniu, że to facet i nawet tam nie spoglądałem.

    #395951

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Wiem, ale sam siebie utwierdziłem w przekonaniu, że to facet i nawet tam nie spoglądałem.

    Dlaczego  ??? ?

    #395952

    Anonymous

    Brno Ossuary

    Brno Ossuary is an underground ossuary in Brno, Czech Republic. It was rediscovered in 2001 in the historical centre of the city, partially under the Church of St. James. It is estimated that the ossuary holds the remains of over 50 thousand people which makes it the second-largest ossuary in Europe, after the Catacombs of Paris. The ossuary was founded in the 17th century, and was expanded in the 18th century. It's been opened to public since June 2012. (Wikipedia)

    "After being rediscovered in 2000 and carefully restored in the past years, the ossuary beneath the St. James church opens this Friday.

    Until the 18th century, the place served as an “archive” of bones of people buried at a small nearby cemetery – so the graves could host fresh corpses. The ossuary was almost forgotten in the modern ages but then literally brought back to the light by local historian Aleš Svoboda.

    The underground labyrinth contains bones of 50,000, making it the second largest ossuary in Europe after the Catacombs of Paris. It has a small chapel, decorated only by skulls and bones.

    Tickets cost CZK 140, which to me is a fair price, and the ossuary is open daily from 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m. except Monday. No one from the Tourist Centre answers my e-mails about tours in foreign languages, so I’ll try to ask them in person as soon as I can."
    source: http://brnonow.com/2012/06/ossuary/

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    A photo from 1930:
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    http://atlasobscura.com/place/brno-ossuary

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