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  • #344785

    Anonymous

    The Polish alphabet consists of 32 letters: a, ą, b, c, ć, d, e, ę, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ł, m, n, ń, o, ó, p, (q), r, s, ś, t, u, (v), w, (x), y, z, ź, ż.

    Vowels:

    These seven letters indicate vowels: a, e, i, o, ó, u, y (the y is never a consonant like in English), however:

      [li]the pronunciation of ó and u is identical,[/li]
      [li]i before a vowel forms an element of a di- or trigraph,[/li]
      [li]i and u can indicate consonantals identical to j and ł (= English y and w respectively) in some words,[/li]

    The three additional letters q, v and x occur only in those non-assimilated foreign words which have preserved their original spelling.

    The order of these 35 letters is essential when you look up words in dictionaries: góra will follow gotyk, because ó is a separate letter, not a variety of the letter o.

    Traditionally we also mention 7 digraphs corresponding to single sounds: ch, cz, dz, dź, dż, rz, sz. However the combinations ci, dzi, gi, ki, ni, si, zi (and with some reservation also bi, fi, mi, pi, wi) have a similar function in some contexts (before a vowel).

    Useful links:


    Grammatical conjugation of word "być" (to be)

    Przez osoby (by person):

    Liczba pojedyńcza (singular):

    ja (I) – jestem (am)
    ty (you) – jesteś (are)
    on, ona, ono (he, she, it) – jest (is)

    Liczba mnoga (plural):

    my (we) – jesteśmy (are)
    wy (you) – jesteście (are)
    oni, one (they) – są (are)

    Przez czasy (by time) i osoby (person) – in Polish we have 3 times:

    Przeszły (past)

    Liczba pojedyńcza (singular):

    ja (I) – byłem (was)
    ty (you) – byłeś (ware)
    on (he) – był (was)
    ona (she)- była (was)
    ono (it) – było (was)

    Liczba mnoga (plural):

    my (we) – byliśmy (ware)
    wy (you) – byliście (ware)
    oni (they – masculine) -byli (ware)
    one (they – femine) – były (ware)

    Przyszły (future)

    Liczba pojedyńcza (singular):

    ja (I) – będę (will be)
    ty (you) – będziesz (will be)
    on, ona, ono (he, she, it) – będzie (will be)

    Liczba mnoga (plural):

    my (we) – będziemy (will be)
    wy (you) – będziecie (will be)
    oni, one (they – masculine, femine) – będą (wwill be)

    Teraźniejszy (present)

    Liczba pojedyńcza (singular):

    ja (I) – jestem (am)
    ty (you) – jesteś (are)
    on, ona, ono (he, she, it) – jest (is)

    Liczba mnoga (plural):

    my (we) – jesteśmy (are)
    wy (you) – jesteście (are)
    oni, one (they – masculine, femine) – są (are)

    EXAMPLES:

    (Ja) jestem Polakiem. (I am Polish.)
    (Ja) jestem mężczyzną. (I am a man.)
    My byliśmy w Pradze. (We ware in Prague.)
    Oni będą na forum Slavorum. (They will be on Slavorum forum.)

    Try yourself  :)

    #405443

    Anonymous

    past and future are very interesting.

    i wonder what's the situation with Serbian  ::) Those specific forms i think are absent from Serbian.

    #405444

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    past and future are very interesting.

    i wonder what's the situation with Serbian  ::) Those specific forms i think are absent from Serbian.

    Lol. All slavic languages have future and perfect:
    ја ћу урадити – future
    ја сам урадио – perfect

    #405445

    Anonymous

    If you are a beginner in Polish, doesn't read this post if you fear that it would mix your knowledge.  :D

    Przez czasy (by time) i osoby (person) – in Polish we have 3 times:

    Not exactly. Depends if we are counting the dying plusperfect or not, we have 4 or 5 tenses. The "school grammar" is not always correct.

    In Old Polish we had also the aorist and imperfect, but those died out before 15th century (except for aorist endings relics in some dialect – eg. Silesian).

    Liczba pojedyncza (singular):

    ja (I) – byłem (was)
    ty (you) – byłeś (ware)
    on (he) – był (was)
    ona (she)- była (was)
    ono (it) – było (was)

    Liczba mnoga (plural):

    my (we) – byliśmy (ware)
    wy (you) – byliście (ware)
    oni (they – masculine) -byli (ware)
    one (they – femine) – były (ware)

    Here it may be helpful for some Slavs who have full perfect. The first two persons' endings is a shortened to be verb (and it's a clitic, it can move within a sentence). The root is the the (second) present active participle, and for the 3rd person we don't have the to be ending.

    The root: był, była, było (sg), byli, były (pl).
    The endings:
    [table]
    [tr]
    [td]person[/td]
    [td]sg.[/td]
    [td]pl.[/td]
    [/tr]
    [tr]
    [td]1[/td]
    [td]-em[/td]
    [td]-śmy[/td]
    [/tr]
    [tr]
    [td]2[/td]
    [td]-eś[/td]
    [td]-ście[/td]
    [/tr]
    [tr]
    [td]3[/td]
    [td]-[/td]
    [td]-[/td]
    [/tr]
    [/table]

    #405446

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Lol. All slavic languages have future and perfect:
    ја ћу урадити – future
    ја сам урадио – perfect

    ajde!!! Do you really think i didn't know this? come on man…. When i am talking about "Those specific forms" i am literally mean "those specific forms".
    ja byłem, ty byłeś, is not at all like "Ja sam bio, ti si bio/bila/bilo"…

    brate, sledeci put, primeti tacno sta ja pisem, vazi?  ;D

    #405447

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Not exactly.

    Eh, this should be a BASIC grammar, that's why I simplified it ;)

    #405448

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    ajde!!! Do you really think i didn't know this? come on man…. When i am talking about "Those specific forms" i am literally mean "those specific forms".
    ja byłem, ty byłeś, is not at all like "Ja sam bio, ti si bio/bila/bilo"…

    Acctually, second case is rather similar.
    ja byłem (ja jestem był)  is shortened form, and of same origin as ja (je)sam bio (ps in speach it is mostly bio sam) (it was in Serbian l also, but we have L-vocalization). :)  Since in Polish it was written together, and because of Serbian L-vocalization, things are more distant now, eventough both are of same origin.

    PS
    Is there any other Slavic language with 7 tenses?

    Quote:
    brate, sledeci put, primeti tacno sta ja pisem, vazi?  ;D

    У реду.

    #405449

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Acctually, second case is rather similar.
    ja byłem (ja jestem był)  is shortened form, and of same origin as ja (je)sam bio (ps in speach it is mostly bio sam) (it was in Serbian l also, but we have L-vocalization). :)  Since in Polish it was written together, and because of Serbian L-vocalization, things are more distant now, eventough both are of same origin.

    PS
    Is there any other Slavic language with 7 tenses?
    У реду.

    hvala mongo! To znaci da Polski je vrlo blizu Srpskog jezika, i o tom slucaju!

    As far the tenses, you mean "padezi"?

    Also, i would like to know this. Bulgarian has only nominative/vokativ. I wish bulgarian could regain their declension system.

    #405450

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    hvala mongo! To znaci da Polski je vrlo blizu Srpskog jezika, i o tom slucaju!

    As far the tenses, you mean "padezi"?

    No, padeži are cases in English. Verb Tense is χρόνος γραμματικής

    Sorry for off-topic. We should retreat in Serbian topic :D

    #405451

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Also, i would like to know this. Bulgarian has only nominative/vokativ. I wish bulgarian could regain their declension system.

    They have some remnants of cases.
    If Bulgarian or Macedonian ever regain the cases I think it will sound almost the same as Serbian xD

    #405452

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    ja byłem (ja jestem był)  is shortened form (…)

    Actually, yes and no. Polish "to be" in present tense is a rather secondary formation. Original Old Polish "to be" conjugation was:
    ja jeśm
    ty jeś (or jesi, I'm not sure here)
    on jest
    my jeśmy
    wy jeście
    oni są

    Later the word was shortened (except for the 3rd person) and was used mostly as a clitic (the endings -em, -eś (sg), -eśmy, -eście (pl), this endings are retained in modern perfect "endings" – which still are clitics rather than endings), thus the conjugation looked as follows:
    jam
    tyś
    on jest
    myśmy
    wyście
    oni są

    Later the verb to be was formed again using the 3rd sg "jest" and the endings. This is even more visible in Silesian (here the aorist ending -ech replaced the -em ending), giving I am = jestech.

    Quote:
    Is there any other Slavic language with 7 tenses?

    Maybe some dialect of Slovenian? They have some crazy archaic features. And what about Bulgarian? They have quite archaic conjugation.

    #405453

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Actually, yes and no. Polish "to be" in present tense is a rather secondary formation. Original Old Polish "to be" conjugation was:
    ja jeśm
    ty jeś (or jesi, I'm not sure here)
    on jest
    my jeśmy
    wy jeście
    oni są

    Well, it is even more similar to our forms:

    јесам (сам)    јесмо (смо)
    јеси (си)        јесте (сте)
    јесте (је)      јесу (су)

    Quote:
    Maybe some dialect of Slovenian? They have some crazy archaic features. And what about Bulgarian? They have quite archaic conjugation.

    Bulgarians have aorist. But, I was more in 7, since OCS has 7, and today Only Serbian and Croatian have 7

    Past tenses
    plusquamperfect, perfect, aorist, imperfect

    present

    and

    Future II and Future <br /;D” title=”>;D” class=”bbcode_smiley” />
    Also Ancient Greek has such system. :)

    #405454

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Maybe some dialect of Slovenian? They have some crazy archaic features. And what about Bulgarian? They have quite archaic conjugation.

    Sadly we don't have 7 tenses. We have 6 but in some cases 7th still exist but it is so rare linguist don't consider Slovene to have 7 tenses. We have other things ofc. :D

    #405455

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Well, it is even more similar to our forms:

    јесам (сам)    јесмо (смо)
    јеси (си)        јесте (сте)
    јесте (је)      јесу (су)
    Bulgarians have aorist. But, I was more in 7, since OCS has 7, and today Only Serbian and Croatian have 7

    Past tenses
    plusquamperfect, perfect, aorist, imperfect

    present

    and

    Future II and Future <br /;D” title=”>;D” class=”bbcode_smiley” />
    Also Ancient Greek has such system. :)

    In (modern) Greek we have 8  :D

    #405456

    Anonymous

    I think these were in OCS

    future
    near future
    present
    perfect
    past-(aorist/imperfect)
    plusquamperfect

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