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  • #342004

    Anonymous
    [size=12pt]The Principality of Nitra[/size]

    or Nitrian Principality (Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) is the name for a Slavic polity, centered around Nitra, Slovakia. It may have been a separate principality in the 8-12th centuries that existed as an independent state and became an autonomous territory within Great Moravia, Poland and the Kingdom of Hungary; or it may have been a nascent state that merged into Great Moravia in the 830s and lost its separate existence around 900.

    Independent polity

    Dux Pribina

    image

    We do not have much information based on documents (only two entries in a Western written primary source) on the polity referred as the Principality of Nitra by later historians. The primary source (The Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians) refers to Pribina's expulsion by Mojmír I, Duke of the Moravians and its interpolation mentions him in connection with Nitra:
    … a certain Priwina, who had been expelled by Moimar, Duke of the Moravians living over the Danube, came to Ratbod
    Archbishop Adalram consecrated a church for him over the Danube on his possession called Nitrava.
    —The Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians[5]

    Nevertheless, during the first decades of the 9th century, the Slavic people living in the north-western parts of the Carpathian Basin were under the rule of a tribal leader (styled prince by later historians) Duke Pribina whose seat was in Nitra. In the 9th century, an extensive network of settlements developed around the town. Around that time, the Avars' power collapsed in the Carpathian Basin following the military campaigns of Charlemagne and Krum of Bulgaria.

    The Principality of Nitra emerged in the 8th century and developed into an independent Slavic state; although the polity may have lost its independence when it was still at the stage of development. In the early 9th century, the polity was situated on the north-western territories of present-day Slovakia.

    Around 828, Archbishop Adalram of Salzburg consecrated a church for Prince Pribina in Nitrava (Nitra).

    [img width=700 height=618]http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-GUoVurxYww4/TdTDw92UpzI/AAAAAAAAAZg/sdUWblxvFN4/s1600/Nitra+Neutra+Nyitra+Nitriansko.jpg”/>

    Part of Great Moravia

    In 833 Mojmír I, Duke of the Moravians, expelled Pribina. Following his expulsion, Pribina went to count Ratbod who administered the Eastern March of the Carolingian Empire. In the early 840s, Louis the German, King of East Francia granted Pribina parts of Pannonia around the Zala River (referred to as the Balaton Principality). Afterwards, Pribina supported East Francia in its struggle against Great Moravia and died in a battle against Rastislav, Prince of Great Moravia in 861. He was succeeded by his son Koceľ in his county in Pannonia.

    What modern historians designate as Great Moravia, arose around 830, when Mojmír I unified the Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube and extended the Moravian supremacy over them. The Principality of Nitra was governed by the future King Svätopluk I from about 860 during the reign of Prince Rastislav.

    Upon Prince Rastislav's request, two brothers, Byzantine officials and missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius came in 863. Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language. Texts translated or written by Cyril and Methodius are considered to be the oldest literature in the Slavic languages.

    Castles in Great Moravia mentioned by name in contemporary written sources were located in the Principality of Nitra. Nitrawa, mentioned in The Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians and other documents, is identified with Nitra. Dowina, referred in the Annals of Fulda at the year 864, is identified with Devín. Brezalauspurc is usually identified with Bratislava.

    Great Moravia reached its maximum territorial extent during the reign of Svätopluk I (870-894), who had governed the Principality of Nitra before ascending the throne. Following his death, his sons, Mojmír II and Svätopluk II got involved in wars with the neighbouring countries and a civil war also broke out between the brothers.

    The see of one of the dioceses in Great Moravia was established in Nitra; its first bishop, Wiching was consecrated in 880.

    Around 896 the nomadic Magyar tribes, who had occasionally intervened into the struggles of the powers dominating the Carpathian Basin already from 861, suffered a catastrophic defeat from the Pechenegs; they left their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains, invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually. The Magyars invaded the territories of Great Moravia around the Morava River in 902. In three battles (July 4–5 and August 9, 907) near Bratislava, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies. Historians traditionally put this year as the date of the breakup of the Great Moravian Empire, but it is not proved.

    Some contemporary sources mention that Great Moravia disappeared without trace following the Magyars' victories, but archaeological researches and toponyms suggest the continuity of Slavic population in the valleys of the rivers of the Inner Western Carpathians.

    Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their cultural development. The administrative system of Great Moravia influenced the development of the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary.

    The Principality of Nitra is in red colour:
    image
    The Principality of Nitra is located in territory of Sloveni (Slovaks):
    image

    Under the rule of Hungarian chieftains

    The Magyar tribes took possession of the Carpathian Basin around 900 and their tribes got established on the territory. Archaeological researches do not prove the total destruction of the regions around the Morava River but the Magyar armies regularly passed through the territories when they marched to pillage the territories of East Francia.

    In any case, the remaining territories belonging to the Principality of Nitra were under the rule of local Slavic.

    From 917 the Magyars made raids to several territories at the same time which may prove the decay of the uniform direction within their tribal federation. The development of the future Kingdom of Hungary started during the reign of Grand Prince Géza (before 972-997) who expanded his rule over the territories west of the River Hron. Some authors claim that Géza's son, the future King Stephen received the Duchy of Nitra in appanage from his father following his marriage with Giselle of Bavaria. When Géza died, a member of the Árpád dynasty the pagan Koppány claimed the succession, but Stephen defeated him with the assistance of his wife's German retinue.

    Around 1015 (1002?) Duke Boleslaw I of Poland occupied some territories of present-day Slovakia east of the River Morava, but King Stephen recovered these territories already in 1018 (1029?, 1031?).

    Part of the Kingdom of Hungary

    King Stephen established several counties on the territories, e.g. Bars, Esztergom, Hont, Komárom and Nitra counties were probably founded by him. The scarcely inhabited parts of the kingdom (e.g., the northern and north-eastern territories of present-day Slovakia) were originally the kings' private forests, then they were organized into "forest counties" (12-13th centuries).

    In 1046 King Andrew I ascended the throne who conceded one-third of the counties of the kingdom (Tercia pars regni) to his brother, Duke Béla who had possibly governed parts of the territory already in 1042. The counties entrusted to Duke Bela did not form a separate province within the kingdom, but they were organized around two or three centers: the eastern block of the counties were located around Bihar (Romanian: Biharea), while their north-western block was centered around Nitra; the third (possible) center of the territories was Krassó (near to the present-day Dupljaja in Serbia).

    The Tercia pars regni were governed regularly by members of the Árpád dynasty (the Dukes Géza, Ladislaus, Lampert, Álmos till 1163, when the last duke of the territory, Stephen ascended the throne. The dukes accepted the supremacy of the kings of Hungary, but some of them (Béla, Géza and Álmos) rebelled against the king in order to acquire the crown and allied themselves with the rulers of the neighboring countries (e.g., the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia).

    The Principality of Nitra had been disestablished by King Coloman I and integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary in 1108/1110 because of centralization of the state.

    Duchy of Nitra is in green colour in the northwest part of new kingdom:
    [img width=700 height=434]http://wapedia.mobi/thumb/cc86505/en/max/1440/1800/Hungary_11th_cent.png?format=jpg%2Cpng%2Cgif&ctf=0?format=jpg,png,gif&loadexternal=1″/>

    Town Nitra today

    Nitra is considered to be an ancient Slovak town. The castle and the historical centre around it:
    image

    [size=8pt]Source: wikipedia (pity that there aren't any other texts about it in English)[/size]

    #359739

    Anonymous

    Interesting text Swaty, so if i understood it correctly according to this kingdom of Hungary was made on example (and parts) of Great Moravia?

    #359740

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Interesting text Swaty, so if i understood it correctly according to this kingdom of Hungary was made on example (and parts) of Great Moravia?

    More than just this. Kingdom of Hungary was direct successor of Great Moravia. Teritorial organization including terminology is the same in KoH as it used to be in GM. Magyar name for county "Megye" is from Slovak "Medza", leader of the county in Magyar is "ispán" a that is as well from Slovak "župan" and thus I can continue with Slovak words in Magyar into infinity.

    Interesting is also the comparation of development of settlements in different parts of former GM. When Czechs annexed western part of GM wich is now south-east region Morava of Czech republic, they let the settlements of former GM abandoned, and founded new settlements. These new settlement are here till today, cities like Brno or Olomouc. The former GM settlement now we are discovering as archeological sites.

    On contrary, the proces in eastern part of GM (including also pannonia) was different. When nomadic Magyars came into the carpathian basin, they did not destroy settlements here, they just infiltrated them. That is basically because Magyars were nomads and simply didnt know how to build a settlement. Thus the old settlements of GM in Slovakia and in Hungary are still present today. Cities like Nitra (Nitrava) or Bratislava (Preslava) in SVK or Veszprém (Bezprín), Budapest (Budín) and Esztergom (Strägom) in Hun.

    Magyars tend to claim, that they were the builders of Hungarian towns, that they came ito blank area and many more. But seriously, when they learned how to build cities, when they spent 100 years (since their arrival till foundation of KoH) by looting, pillaging and slaughterring of half of Europe?  Magyars only over time learned how to lead a settled life, majority of them were nomadic up to 13th ct. And Magyar chauvinists know it. They also know very well, that everything important for settled life they learned from us. Just look at Magyar vocabulary related to agriculture, housing, cuisine and you will find that so called Magyar expressions are nothing more just deformed Slovak words. This is the reason, why Magyars hate us – Slovaks most in whole world. Because they ceated a wonderfull story about glorious victors ("vitéz" in Magyar, wich is another Slovak word "výťaz"), that stood down from horseback and started to build stone castles and cathedrals. And when they are confrontated with reality, their unconscious can not accept it. So if there is any evidence, that can undermine their version of history, they must destroy it. Therefore Magyarisation, therefore thousands Magyar coments about nonexistent Slovaks and their history on every video, that has something to do with us on youtube, therefore hatefull replies on Slovaks in every forum you can find.

    As Slovak writer Jerguš Ferko said, "It is a rebellion of cultural copy, against its original and effort to replace it".

    And I also can mention here genetics, by wich you can see how close are present Magyars and Slovaks to each other. Both are very close to Czech, Poles or Ukrainians and therefore Slavic. That just show enormous nuber of Slovaks, that have been assimilated into Magyars.

    #359741

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Interesting text Swaty, so if i understood it correctly according to this kingdom of Hungary was made on example (and parts) of Great Moravia?

    More than just this. Kingdom of Hungary was direct successor of Great Moravia. Teritorial organization including terminology is the same in KoH as it used to be in GM. Magyar name for county "Megye" is from Slovak "Medza", leader of the county in Magyar is "ispán" a that is as well from Slovak "župan" and thus I can continue with Slovak words in Magyar into infinity.

    Interesting is also the comparation of development of settlements in different parts of former GM. When Czechs annexed western part of GM wich is now south-east region Morava of Czech republic, they let the settlements of former GM abandoned, and founded new settlements. These new settlement are here till today, cities like Brno or Olomouc. The former GM settlement now we are discovering as archeological sites.

    On contrary, the proces in eastern part of GM (including also pannonia) was different. When nomadic Magyars came into the carpathian basin, they did not destroy settlements here, they just infiltrated them. That is basically because Magyars were nomads and simply didnt know how to build a settlement. Thus the old settlements of GM in Slovakia and in Hungary are still present today. Cities like Nitra (Nitrava) or Bratislava (Preslava) in SVK or Veszprém (Bezprín), Budapest (Budín) and Esztergom (Strägom) in Hun.

    Magyars tend to claim, that they were the builders of Hungarian towns, that they came ito blank area and many more. But seriously, when they learned how to build cities, when they spent 100 years (since their arrival till foundation of KoH) by looting, pillaging and slaughterring of half of Europe?  Magyars only over time learned how to lead a settled life, majority of them were nomadic up to 13th ct. And Magyar chauvinists know it. They also know very well, that everything important for settled life they learned from us. Just look at Magyar vocabulary related to agriculture, housing, cuisine and you will find that so called Magyar expressions are nothing more just deformed Slovak words. This is the reason, why Magyars hate us – Slovaks most in whole world. Because they ceated a wonderfull story about glorious victors ("vitéz" in Magyar, wich is another Slovak word "výťaz"), that stood down from horseback and started to build stone castles and cathedrals. And when they are confrontated with reality, their unconscious can not accept it. So if there is any evidence, that can undermine their version of history, they must destroy it. Therefore Magyarisation, therefore thousands Magyar coments about nonexistent Slovaks and their history on every video, that has something to do with us on youtube, therefore hatefull replies on Slovaks in every forum you can find.

    As Slovak writer Jerguš Ferko said, "It is a rebellion of cultural copy, against its original and effort to replace it".

    And I also can mention here genetics, by wich you can see how close are present Magyars and Slovaks to each other. Both are very close to Czech, Poles or Ukrainians and therefore Slavic. That just show enormous nuber of Slovaks, that have been assimilated into Magyars.

    #359742

    Anonymous

    According to Slovak slavist Ján Stanislav, ethnographic border between Serbs and Slovaks in Pannonia were Mureş river on the east, and Balaton lake on the west.

    On this Italian map Magna Moravia is almost to the Danube river
    image

    #359743

    Anonymous

    Sitňan, rep for you. But I think, word župan originates in Croatian (however it's Slavic).

    Dervan, don't forget about Slovenians and Croatians, there were no Serbs around the Balaton lake.

    Historians locate Magna Moravia on the basis of the only one sentence by Konstantin VII Porfyrogenetos, Emperor of Byzantium, who locates Megale Morabia above the Danube. As we know, Danube is a pretty long river and it could be easily in what is today Serbia and Transylvania. He didn't write anything else, just "above the Danube". So, the Great Moravia and the Regnum Suentebaldi/Regnum Slavorum (Kingdom of King Svätopluk I.) did not have to be the same.

    #359744

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Sitňan, rep for you. But I think, word župan originates in Croatian (however it's Slavic).

    Dervan, don't forget about Slovenians and Croatians, there were no Serbs around the Balaton lake.

    Historians locate Magna Moravia on the basis of the only one sentence by Konstantin VII Porfyrogenetos, Emperor of Byzantium, who locates Megale Morabia above the Danube. As we know, Danube is a pretty long river and it could be easily in what is today Serbia and Transylvania. He didn't write anything else, just "above the Danube". So, the Great Moravia and the Regnum Suentebaldi/Regnum Slavorum (Kingdom of King Svätopluk I.) did not have to be the same.

    Administrative regions in Croatia are called "Županije", while the administrative leader of such region is called "Župan"

    #359745

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Interesting text Swaty, so if i understood it correctly according to this kingdom of Hungary was made on example (and parts) of Great Moravia?

    Early Kingdom of Hungary took over the whole administration, moreover its first king Stephen I had been dubbed by Slovak (or Greatmoravian, if you want) magnates Poznaň and Hunt – they supported him in his struggle against pagan proto-Magyar tribes headed by Koppány. Stephen I was even a prince of Principality of Nitra (within new kingdom) which was established by Duke Pribina centuries ago.
    Btw. there are no proofs of totally destroyed former Great Moravia's territory by proto-Magyars. They just came, plundered, then settled and learned how to live like the Slavs around. And now they act like conquerors of the whole world. We Slovaks, know Magyars the best (even better than they may think).

    #359746

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Dervan, don't forget about Slovenians and Croatians, there were no Serbs around the Balaton lake.

    I'm not sure, I found that reference by Ján Stanislav. Also on map above that region is named "Alba Serblia" (White Serbia).

    While on this map from Shepherd atlas, all modern western Hungary is inabited by Slovenes

    [img width=700 height=464]http://i120.photobucket.com/albums/o187/tajson/europe_peoples_900.jpg?t=1243697669″/>

    Hungarian map
    [img width=700 height=476]http://terkepek.adatbank.transindex.ro/kepek/netre/176.gif”/>

    image

    #359747

    Anonymous

    I have read Ján Stanislav's books and he considered toponymy, not maps. And he said, there was Slovak-Slovenian boundary around the Balaton lake.
    Btw. Slovaks in the last map are so far from Danube.. they are located there in the Subcarpathian Rus. This is the first time I've seen something like this.. quite wrong map.

    #359748

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    I have read Ján Stanislav's books and he considered toponymy, not maps.

    Well, of course ;)

    Quote:
    And he said, there was Slovak-Slovenian boundary around the Balaton lake.

    Are some of his books available on internet in Slovak language? I'm particulary interested in his "Slovenský juh v stredoveku", I would like to compare it with translations I have.

    #359749

    Anonymous

    Unfortunately, I haven't seen any digitalized version of his books in internet.  :-  What translation do you have?

    #359750

    Anonymous

    From different books by Serbian authors, particulary dr Jovan Pejin, considering Panonian Slavs and Hungarians (persecuted for sentence that "now Magyars have nice Slavic faces" ::)), he often quote Slovak authors, among them Jan Stanislav.

    His interview
    http://www.srpskapolitika.com/intervjui/2008/latinica/048.html

    #359751

    Anonymous

    About Reverting of Bavarians and Carinthians to Religion.

    (De Conversione Bagoariorum et Carantanorum)

    image

    image
    Pribina (priuvina), ruler of Nitra Principality

    This disputative work was probably created between years 828-871 in  Salzburg archbishop Adalvin court. Bavarian bishops wrote about Nitra county, consecration of first church in Nitra, Pribina's exile from Nitra, his baptization, about Pribina and his son's Pannonian county and theirs activities. Merits of Salzburg's archbishops  about christianization of Carinthians, Slavonians and Avars are emphasizing. This work condemn activities of byzantian mission in Pannonia and in ancient Slovak territory. Brothers from Solun (Constantinus and Methodius) are taken as itruders in Salzburg' archbishop's diocesan territory.

    (from more preserved manuscripts is oldest from second half of 12th century, it is stored in manuscript's department of Austria national library in Wien)

    image

    Letter from Frankish king Louis German from february 20th, 860, which certify count Pribina donation of lands near Blatnohrad to Niederalteich monastery near Passau.

    #359752

    Anonymous

    I am against clasifying Slovenes on early medieval maps. That is becouse Slovenci was originaly term for fellow men who could understand each other unlike Nemci who are "mute" + ancestors of modern Slovenes were divided into several tribes like Karantanci, Karniolci, Goričani, Gradiščani (Gradiscia, Italy), Savinci (western area of Savinci was later called Windic march), etc.

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