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    Anonymous

    Robert Sears was a 19th century American editor and publisher. He complied information from around the world on different subjects, which he then published in books marketed to the general public. I’ve been reading his “An Illustrated Description of the Russian Empire,” published in 1855. Mass immigration of Europeans to the USA had not yet begun, so there were few Slavic people in America in 1855. Mass Immigration through Ellis Island would begin around 1894. In the 19th century, Russia was a mysterious and romantic land to the vast majority of Americans. A book like this would have been quite popular among the masses.  PDF of the book: https://ia802607.us.archive.org/29/items/illustrateddescr00searrich/illustrateddescr00searrich.pdf

    Here is the section on Volhynia, the area of my ancestors.

    The government of
    Volhynia, formerly belonging to Poland, lies principally between the fiftieth
    and fifty-second degrees of north latitude, and the twenty-fourth and
    twenty-ninth degrees of east longitude, having on the northeast and north the
    governments of Grodno and Minsk ; on the east and southeast, Kiev ; on the
    south, Podolia ; on the southwest, Austrian Poland ; and on the west, the
    palatinate of Lublin. It has an area of about twenty-nine thousand square
    miles. The surface is in general an undulating plain ; and the hills, which are
    the last ramifications of the Carpathians, though they nowhere rise to three
    hundred feet above the level of the sea, give an agreeable variety to the
    scenery. The Boug rises in this province : the other principal rivers are the
    Styr, Goryne, &c., tributaries of the Pripet. Along some of these are
    extensive marshes and beds of turf; but in general the land is very fertile,
    producing at an average a considerable surplus of grain above the consumption. 

    A good deal of flax and hemp is also grown. Agriculture is, however,
    not more advanced than in the Lithuanian provinces ; and the gardens and
    orchards, particularly the former, are much neglected. The climate, though
    comparatively mild, is not warm enough for the vine. The forests comprise oak,
    beech, lindens, firs, pines, &c., and are very extensive, though only about
    two hundred square miles of forest-land belong to the crown. The pastures are
    excellent, and well adapted for the fattening of cattle ; a good many sheep,
    hogs, and poultry, are kept. Volhynia has a breed of horses smaller than the
    generality of those of Poland. Fishing is an occupation of some importance ;
    bog-iron, millstones, potter’s clay, nitre, and flint, are among the mineral
    products. Though agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants, the
    manufacturing industry of Volhynia is greater than that of most other parts of
    Western Russia. The women, almost everywhere, spin and weave different fabrics
    ; and leather, glass, and earthenware, paper, potash, tar, charcoal, &c.,
    are generally made. The principal exports are, however, grain, cattle, hides,
    flour, wool, wax, honey, and other rural produce.

     

    The trade is
    principally in the hands of the Jews, of whom there are about forty thousand in
    the government. The rest of the population consists of Rusniaks, with Poles in
    the towns, and some Great Russians, gipsies, Tartars, Moldavians, and Germans.
    The inhabitants are mostly of the Greek or united church.

    Volhynia is divided
    into twelve districts. The principal towns are Jitomir, the capital,
    Berditschev, Storo-Konstantov, Ostrog, and Kremenets. Public education appears
    to be less backward in this than in most of the Russian governments. Volhynia,
    like Podolia, is subordinate to the military governor of Kiev, but is one of
    the Polish provinces which preserves, in some degree, its ancient constitution
    and laws. Jitomir (Polish, Zi/tomir, or Zytomiers^, the capital of the above
    government, is situated on the left bank of the river Teterew, six hundred and
    seventy miles south-southwest from St. Petersburg. It is the see of botha Greek
    and a Roman catholic bishop ; has manufactures of leather and hats, and an
    active trade in linen, silk, and woollen goods, wax, honey, Hungarian wines,
    salt, and tallow. It also has four important annual fairs. Its population is
    rising thirty thousand. Berditschev (Polish, Berdyczeiv)^ another town in the
    government of Volhynia, twenty-five miles south of Jitomir, is an ill-built
    place, but contains several churches, and a large Carmelite convent, in the
    church of which is an image of the Virgin Mary, the object of pilgrimages. It
    carries on a considerable trade in grain, wine, cattle, honey, wax, and
    leather, and is celebrated for its quarterly fairs. At these, goods to the
    value of three millions of dollars are disposed of, and much business is done,
    especially with Austrian dealers. An almanac of great repute is printed here.
    Its population is about twenty thousand, comprising many Jews.

     

    AN ILLUSTRATED DESCRIPTION OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

    EMBRACING 

    ITS GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES, POLITICAL DIVISIONS,
    PRINCIPAL CITIES AND

    TOWNS, POPULATION, CLASSES, GOVERNMENT, RESOURCES,
    COMMERCE, 

    ANTIQUITIES, RELIGION, PROGRESS IN EDUCATION,
    LITERATURE, ART, 

    AND SCIENCE, MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, HISTORIC SUMMARY,
    ETC., 

    FROM THE LATEST AND THE MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES.

     

    By ROBERT SEARS. 

    EMBELLISHED WlTH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, 

    AND 

    Maps of European and Asiatic Russia.

    NEW YORK:

    PUBLISHED BY ROBERT SEARS, 181 WILLIAM STREET. 1855.


    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY ◦ Boundaries ◦ Latitude and Longitude ◦ Superficial Area ◦ Comparative Dimensions ◦ Russian America ◦ Ural Mountains ◦ aucasian Range ◦ Asiatic Russia ◦ Altai Range ◦ Forests ◦ White Sea ◦ Baltic Sea ◦ Its Extent ◦ Gulf of Bothnia ◦ Gulf of Finland ◦ Euxine or Black Sea ◦ Sea of Azov ◦ Putrid Sea ◦ Strait of Enikaleh ◦ Caspian Sea ◦ Its Position, Form, and Extent ◦ Its Islands ◦ Its Fisheries ◦ Its Harbors ◦ Its History ◦ the Sea of Okhotsk ◦ Rivers ◦ the Dwina ◦ the Obi ◦ the Yenisei ◦ the Duna ◦ the Niemen ◦ the Dniester ◦ the Dnieper ◦ the Boug ◦ the Don ◦ Attempts to unite the Don and the Volga ◦ the Kouban ◦ the Danube ◦ Its Mouths ◦ the Volga ◦ Its Source and Course ◦ Its Mouths ◦ Its Tributaries ◦ Its Inundations ◦ Its Commercial Importance ◦ Lakes ◦ Lake or Sea of Baikal ◦ Lake Ladoga ◦ Lake Onega ◦ Lake Peipus ◦ Lake Ilmen ◦ Bielo-Ozero ◦ Climate ◦ Storms ◦ the Miatjel ◦ the Samjots ◦ the Vinga ◦ Its Terrible Devastations

    CHAPTER II

    POLITICAL DIVISIONS. THE BALTIC PROVINCES ◦ Division-Line of European and Asiatic Russia ◦ General Divisions ◦ Table of Areas and Populations ◦ Finland: Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Soil ◦ Productions ◦ Animals ◦ Manufactures ◦ Government ◦ People ◦ the Aland Archipelago ◦ Chief Towns ◦ Abo ◦ Helsingfors Sweaborg ◦ Tornea ◦ Government of St. Petersburg: Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Productive Resources ◦ Commerce ◦ Kronstadt ◦ Its Harbor and Fortifications ◦ Esthonia: Soil ◦ Animals ◦ Thrilling Incident ◦ Revel ◦ Its Harbor ◦ Historical Incident ◦ Catherinthal, built by Peter the Great ◦ Livonia: Soil and Productions ◦ Forests ◦ Wild Animals ◦ Hunting Scenes ◦ Rural Industry ◦ Russian Coins ◦ Livonia: Population ◦ Government ◦ Riga ◦ Dorpat ◦ Historic Incident of Schloss-Ringen ◦ Courland : Physical Aspect ◦ Soil and Productions ◦ Animals ◦ Elk-Hunting ◦ Mittau ◦ Libau ◦ Windau ◦ History of the Baltic Provinces ◦ People ◦ the Lettes and Esthonians ◦ the Jews ◦ the Germans

    CHAPTER III

    GREAT RUSSIA ◦ Archangel: Its Extent ◦ Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Resources ◦ People ◦ Russian Lapland ◦ the Laplanders ◦ Nova Zembla ◦ City of Archangel ◦ History ◦ Vologda : Soil, Climate, and Productions ◦ City of Vologda ◦ Olonetz: Soil ◦ Resources ◦ Petrozavodsk ◦ Kargo-pole ◦ Novgorod : Physical Aspect ◦ Soil and Productions ◦ City of Novgorod ◦ Its History ◦ Pskov: Soil and Productions ◦ Pskov the Capital ◦ Torepetz ◦ Velikie-Louki ◦ Tver: Productions ◦ Manufactures ◦ Commerce ◦ Tver, its Capital ◦ Smolensk : Soil and Productions ◦ Forests ◦ City of Smolensk ◦ Moscow: Its Extent ◦ Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Natural Products and Manufactures ◦ Yaroslav: Rivers and Lakes ◦ Climate ◦ Resources ◦ City of Yaroslav ◦ Its History ◦ Kostroma: Soil and Climate ◦ Products ◦ City of Kostroma ◦ Nijnei-Novgorod ◦ Soil and Productions ◦ Manufactures ◦ City of Nijnei-Novgorod ◦ Fairs ◦ Vladimir: Surface ◦ Soil and Products ◦ City of Vladimir ◦ Riazan: Climate ◦ Forests ◦ Products and Manufactures ◦ City of Riazan ◦ Tambov : Resources ◦ Forests ◦ Manufactures ◦ City of Tambov ◦ oula : Resources ◦ City of Toula ◦ Market ◦ Manufactures ◦ History ◦ Kalouga: Climate and Productions ◦ Manufactures ◦ Exports ◦ City of Kalouga ◦ Orel : Its Rivers ◦ Soil and Productions ◦ Commerce ◦ Town of Orel ◦ Koursk : Products ◦ Exports ◦ City of Koursk ◦ Fairs ◦ Voronej : Resources ◦ Population ◦ City of Voronej

    CHAPTER IV

    LITTLE AND WESTERN RUSSIA ◦ Lithuania ◦ Its History and People ◦ Tchernigov : Its Soil ◦ Lakes and Rivers ◦ Productions ◦ Its Capital, Tchernigov ◦ Kharkov: Soil and Productions ◦ City of Kharkov ◦Poltava: Its Surface, Soil, and Resources ◦ Town of Poltava ◦ Kiev: Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Crops ◦ City of Kiev ◦ Antiquities ◦ History of Kiev ◦ Podolia: Physical Aspect ◦ Productions ◦ Kaminietz ◦ Balta ◦ Volhynia : Physical Aspect ◦ Manufactures and Exports ◦ People ◦ Jitomir ◦ Berditschev ◦ Minsk: Productive Resources◦People ◦ Its Capital ◦ Moghilev: Rivers and Lakes ◦ Productions ◦ Town of Moghilev ◦ Vitepsk: Soil and Productions ◦ Its Capital◦Wilna : Rivers and Lakes ◦ Agricultural Resources ◦ Animals ◦ Its Capital ◦ Educational Institutions ◦ Grodno : Soil and Productions ◦ People ◦ Town of Grodno ◦ Bialystok : Its Resources ◦ Bialystok, its Capital

    CHAPTER V

    RUSSIAN POLAND ◦ Former Extent of Poland ◦ Present Limits of Russian Poland ◦ Population ◦ Physical Aspect ◦ Climate and Soil◦Productive Resources ◦ Estates of the Nobility ◦ the Peasantry ◦ Position of the Peasantry ◦ Villages ◦ Domestic and Wild Animals ◦ Forests ◦ Minerals ◦ Manufactures ◦ Commerce ◦ Government ◦ Religion ◦ Education ◦ People ◦ History ◦ Krakow, the Ancient Capital of Poland ◦ Warsaw: Public Buildings ◦ Suburbs ◦ Educational Institutions ◦ Manufactures and Trade ◦ History ◦ Other Towns

    CHAPTER VI

    SOUTHERN RUSSIA ◦ Bessarabia : Its Position and Physical Aspect ◦ Climate and Productions ◦ People ◦ History ◦ Kichinev◦ Ismail ◦ Its Capture by Suwarrow ◦ Kherson : Soil and Climate ◦ Industrial Arts ◦ Kherson, its Capital ◦ Historical Incident: “The Road to Constantinople” ◦ Odessa ◦ Its Trade ◦ Its Granaries ◦ Bazars ◦ Vineyards ◦ The Boulevard ◦ Memorials of Howard ◦ Nikolaiev ◦ Taurida: Position and Area ◦ Its People ◦ Ekatherinoslav : Soil and Minerals ◦ Climate and Products ◦ Game ◦ Manufactures ◦ Bon Cossacks (Government): Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Prod nctive Resources ◦ The Don Cossacks ◦ Their History ◦ Kreposts ◦ Nova Tcherkask ◦ Toherkask ◦ Taganrog ◦ Azov

    CHAPTER VII

    THE CRIMEA ◦ Physical Aspect ◦ The Baidar Valley ◦ Productive Resources ◦ Salt Works ◦ Chief Towns ◦ Population ◦ Crim Tartars ◦ History ◦ Sevastapol ◦ Its Harbor and Fortifications ◦ Ink-erman, the “Town of Caverns” ◦ Ruins ◦ Simferopol ◦ Camel-Carts ◦ Fair ◦ Races ◦ the Tchatir Bagh ◦ Cave of Foul Kouba ◦ Kisil Kouba ◦ Pallas’ Residence ◦ Kertsch ◦ Panti-capaeum, Residence and Reputed Burial-Place of Mithridates ◦ Caffa ◦ Baktchiserai (the “Seraglio of Gardens”) ◦ Tartar Houses ◦ Palace of the Khans ◦ Mausoleum of the Khans, “Valley of Jehoshaphat ◦ Tchoufut Kale ◦ the Karaite Jews ◦ Mangoup Kale ◦ Novel Method of Shoeing a Bullock ◦ Decay of the Tartar Race

    CHAPTER VIII


    THE STEPPES OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA ◦ Area and Physical Aspect ◦- Rivers ◦ Ravines ◦ Limans ◦ Stavoks ◦ Climate ◦ Seasons ◦ Excessive Drought ◦ Vegetation ◦ Burian ◦ Steppe-Fires ◦ Earth-Hares ◦ Mice ◦ Wolves ◦ Dogs ◦ Bustard-Hunting ◦ Birds of Prey ◦ Reptiles ◦ The Toad-Shower ◦ Lizards ◦ Snakes ◦ Locusts ◦ Their Devastations ◦ Herds of Horses ◦ The Tabuntshik ◦ The Horsestealer ◦ Battles of the Horses ◦ Attacks of “Wolves ◦ Thrashing of Grain by Horses ◦ Mazeppa ◦ Sheep ◦ The Tshabawn ◦ Milking Sheep ◦ Herds of Cattle ◦ The Tsherednik ◦ Tallow-Houses ◦ “Wholesale Slaughter ◦ Tallow-Market

    CHAPTER IX

    EASTERN RUSSIA ◦ Governments of Eastern Russia ◦ Astrakhan: Physical Aspect ◦ Soil ◦ Productive Resources ◦ Salt-Lakes ◦ Rivers ◦ Climate ◦ Animals ◦ Fisheries ◦ People ◦ The Calmucks ◦ Their Extraordinary Emigration in 1770-177l ◦ City of Astrakhan ◦ Its Trade and Population ◦ Saratov : Productions ◦ Sheep◦Population ◦ Commerce ◦ City of Saratov◦Other Towns ◦ Orenburg: Physical Aspect ◦ Soil ◦ Minerals◦Town of Orenburg ◦ Its Manufactures and Trade ◦ Perm : Physical Aspect ◦ Climate ◦ Gold, Iron, and Sail-Mines ◦ Trade ◦ Inhabitants ◦ City of Perm ◦ Ekaterinburg ◦ Trade in Precious Stones ◦ Yiatka : Physical Aspect Productive Resources ◦ Commerce ◦ Population ◦ Yiatka the Capital ◦ Simbirsk: Climate and Productions ◦ Its Capital ◦ Samara: Area and Population ◦ City of Samara ◦ Its Annual Fair ◦ Penza: Soil and Productions ◦ Manufactures and Exports ◦ City of Penza ◦ Kazan : Physical Aspect ◦ Agriculture ◦ Gardens ◦ Population ◦ Cheremisses and Chuvasses ◦ The city of Kazan ◦ The Tartars ◦ Their Costume ◦ Tartar Women ◦ Kremlin of Kazan ◦ University ◦ Manufactures and Trade ◦ Inundation of the Volga ◦ Foundation of Kazan ◦ Its History ◦ Its Conflagrations ◦ Oliphant’s Sketch of Kazan in 1853

    CHAPTER X

    THE CAUCASIAN PROVINCES ◦ Caucasian Tribes ◦ Georgia: Its Position and Aspect ◦ Rivers ◦ Climate and Soil ◦ Fruit ◦ Its Vineyards ◦ Wines ◦ Domestic Animals ◦ Roads ◦ Manufactures ◦ Female Georgians ◦ Classes ◦ History ◦ Teflis ◦ Its History ◦ Other Towns ◦ Shirvan: Baku ◦ Abcheran ◦ Naphtha Springs◦ “Field of Fire” ◦ Ghebers ◦ Russian Armenia : Physical Aspect ◦ Guk-cha, or Blue Lake ◦ Mount Ararat ◦ Volcanic Eruption of 1840 ◦ Nakhichevan ◦ Climate and Soil of Armenia ◦ Inhabitants ◦ Echmiadzin ◦ Armenian Language and Literature ◦ Erivan ◦ Akhalzik ◦ Imeritia: Physical Aspect ◦ Natural Productions ◦ Bees and Silkworms ◦ Commerce ◦ Mingrelia : Physical Aspect ◦ Productions ◦ Guria : People ◦ Kou-tais ◦Abassia: Its Position ◦ Industry ◦ History ◦ Anapar◦Circassia: Extent and Physical Features ◦ Its Hydrography ◦ Climate ◦ Soil and Natural Productions ◦ Animals, Wild and Domestic ◦ Minerals ◦ People ◦ Villages ◦ the Chase and War ◦ Circassian Women ◦ Domestic Habits ◦ Physical Beauty ◦ Education ◦ Religion ◦ Manufactures and Commerce ◦ History ◦ Caucasus: Physical Features and Climate ◦ Stavropol ◦ Other Towns ◦ Dag-hestan : Physical Aspect ◦ Bituminous Springs ◦ Climate ◦ Population ◦Derbent ◦ Kouba ◦ Tschetschenzes and Lesghians ◦ The Caucasian “War ◦ Its History ◦ Shamyl

    CHAPTER XI

    SIBERIA, OR ASIATIC RUSSIA ◦ Its Immense Extent ◦ Physical Aspect ◦ the Steppe ◦ Forests ◦ Moorland, or Tundra ◦ Stanovoy Mountains ◦ Dry Lakes ◦ Samoides ◦ Ostiaks ◦ Calmucks ◦ Turkish Tribes ◦ Buriats ◦ Tungusi ◦ Yakutes ◦ Tchouktchis ◦ History of Siberia ◦ Tobolsk : Soil and Productions ◦ Tartar Villages ◦ City of Tobolsk ◦ Climate ◦ Tomsk : Soil and Productions ◦ Tomsk, its Capital ◦ Yeniseisk : Variety of Soil, Climate, and Productions ◦ Inhabitants ◦ Krasnoiarsk Other Towns ◦ Irkoutsk : Physical Features ◦ Climate ◦ Forests ◦ Wild Animals ◦ A Bear Story ◦ Domestic Animals ◦ Crops◦Minerals ◦ Manufactures ◦ Irkoutsk, the Capital ◦ Its Police ◦ the “Double Town” ◦ Yakoutsk: Its Rivers ◦ Productive Resources ◦ Yakoutsk, the Capital ◦ Its Trade ◦ Inhabitants ◦ Climate ◦ Okhotsk: Physical Features ◦ Products◦Town of Okhotsk◦Kamtschatka : Its Form and Physical Aspect ◦ Mountains ◦ Climate ◦ Forests ◦ Agriculture ◦ Wild Animals ◦ Inhabitants ◦Amusements ◦ Houses ◦ Dogs ◦ Koriaks ◦ Trade ◦ History ◦ Government ◦ Aleutian Islands : Discovery ◦ Volcanic Formation ◦ Earthquakes ◦ Soil ◦ Game ◦ Fish ◦ Inhabitants ◦ Maimers and Customs ◦ Religion ◦ Government

    CHAPTER XII

    MOSCOW ◦ Its Streets ◦ Its Extent◦The Kremlin ◦ Bird’s-Eye Yiew ◦ Spass Yorota, or “Gate of the Redeemer” ◦ the Nicholas Gate ◦ Ancient Palace of the Czars ◦ Terema ◦ Granovitaya Palata ◦ Coronation-Hall ◦ the Throne ◦ the Bolshoi Dvoretz ◦ the Maloi Dvoretz ◦ Cathedral of the Assumption ◦ Cathedral of the Archangel Michael ◦ the False Dmitri ◦ Church of the Annunciation ◦ the Senate, Treasury, and Arsenal ◦ Memorials of the Early Czars ◦ Palace of Arms ◦ “Monarch Bell” ◦ Ivan Yeliki ◦ Its Bells ◦ Cathedral of St. Basil ◦ Chapel of the “Iberian Mother of God” ◦ Convents and Monasteries ◦ Maidens’ Field ◦ Hospitals ◦ Theatres ◦ Gostinoi Dvor ◦ Manufactures and Commerce ◦ History

    CHAPTER XIII


    ST. PETERSBURG ◦ Site of St. Petersburg ◦ Its Divisions ◦ Iron Bridge across the Neva ◦ Bird’s-Eye View ◦ Foundation of the City ◦ Its Perils ◦ Inundation of 1824 ◦ Climate ◦ St. Petersburg in Winter ◦ the Russian Stove ◦ Double Windows ◦ the Neva in Winter ◦ Breaking up of the Ice ◦ Its Celebration ◦ Street Population ◦ Nevskoi Prospect ◦ the English Quay ◦ the Mujik ◦ Sweeping the Streets, a Punishment for Drunkenness

    CHAPTER XIV

    ST. PETERSBURG – IMPERIAL PALACES AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS ◦ The Winter-Palace ◦ Its Conflagration in 1837 ◦ Its Re-Erection ◦ Its Interior ◦ the Hermitage ◦ Its Treasures ◦ the Marble Palace ◦ the Taurida Palace ◦ Its Orangery ◦ Its Occupants ◦ Hotel de l’Etat Major ◦ the Alexandrian Column ◦ the Old Michailoff Palace ◦ the Anitshkof Palace ◦ the New Michailoff Palace ◦ Little Summer Garden ◦ the Red Palace ◦ the Imperial Library ◦ Museums ◦ Academy of Fine Arts ◦ Educational Institutions ◦ Government Buildings ◦ the Exchange ◦ the Customhouse ◦ the Fortress, Arsenals, and Barracks ◦ Historical Souvenirs ◦ Equestrian Statue of Peter the Great ◦ Monument to Suwarrow ◦ Monument to Field-Marshal Romanoff

    CHAPTER XV

    ST. PETERSBURG – CHURCHES AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS ◦ Modern Church Architecture ◦ Kazan Cathedral ◦ Isaac Church ◦ Church of St. Peter and St Paul ◦ Its Spire ◦ Thrilling Incident ◦ Its Vaults ◦ Tombs of the Russian Emperors ◦ Smolnoi and Nevskoi Convents ◦ Monastery of St. Sergius ◦ Preobrashensky Church ◦ Trinity Church ◦ Nicolai Church ◦ Roman Catholic Church ◦ Hospitals ◦ the Foundling Hospital

    CHAPTER XVI

    MARKETS AND MANUFACTORIES OF ST. PETERSBURG ◦ The Gostinoi Dvor ◦ the Gostonoi Merchants ◦ the Somovar ◦ the Apraxin Rinok ◦ Image-Sellers ◦ Fruit-Stalls ◦ Pastry-Stands ◦ Tshukin Dvor ◦ Bird-Market ◦ Hay-Market ◦ For-zen Meat-Market ◦ Sennaia Ploschad ◦ Industrial Establishments: Tapestry, Porcelain, Card, Cotton, and Paper Manufactories ◦ Ship-Building

    CHAPTER XVII


    THE GARDENS AND VILLAS OF ST. PETERSBURG ◦ Calherinenhoff ◦ the Summer Garden ◦ Peter’s Wooden Palace ◦ the Wife-Market ◦ Islands of the Neva ◦ Kammenoi, or Stone Island ◦ Yelagin, Cross, and Apothecaries’ Islands ◦ Count StrogonofPs Gardens ◦ Czarsko Selo: the Palace ◦ the Arsenal ◦ the Grounds ◦ Paulofsky and Gatchina ◦ Strelna ◦ Peterhoff ◦ the Empress’ Annual Fetes at Peterhoff ◦ Old Castle of Peter the Great ◦ Marly and Monplaisir ◦ the Hermitage ◦ Cottage of Catherine II. ◦ Ropscha ◦ Oranienbaum

    CHAPTER XVIII

    THE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT ◦ Absolute Power of the Sovereign ◦ Organization of the Government by Peter the Great ◦ the Imperial Council ◦ the Senate ◦ the Holy Synod ◦ Committee of Ministers ◦ Local Administration of the Governments and Provinces ◦ the Judicial System ◦ the Police System ◦ Its Corruption ◦ Thieves and Pickpockets ◦ Punishments ◦ the Rod ◦ the Knout ◦ Exile to Siberia ◦ Departure of Exiles ◦ the Journey ◦ their Number and Condition in Siberia ◦ the Army ◦ Its Organization ◦ the Imperial Guard ◦ Guard of the Interior ◦ the Gendarmes ◦ the Cossacks ◦ Conscription ◦ Pay ◦ Military Colonies ◦ Insurrection of 1831 ◦ the Navy ◦ Its Extent ◦ Its Efficiency ◦ Its History ◦ Public Revenue ◦ Its Sources ◦ Expenditures ◦ Public Debt

    CHAPTER XIX

    THE PEOPLE ◦ The Nobility ◦ Its Division by Peter into Fourteen Classes ◦ Titles ◦ Powers of the Nobility ◦ their Education and Habits ◦ their Vassals ◦ Attention to Manufactures ◦ the Clergy, Merchants, and Burghers ◦ their Classification ◦ the Three Guilds ◦ Citizen-Burghers ◦ Respectable Citizens ◦ Suburban Inhabitants ◦ the Free Peasantry ◦ the Serfs ◦ Serf Laws ◦ Marriages among Serfs and Free Peasants ◦ Habits of the Russian Peasantry ◦ their Villages, Costume, Food, &c. ◦ Superstitions and Vices ◦ the Vapor-Bath ◦ Public Baths

    CHAPTER XX


    RELIGION – THE GREEK CHURCH ◦ The Various Religions in Russia ◦ History of the Greek Church ◦ Reforms of Peter the Great ◦ Points of Difference between the Greek and Roman Church ◦ the Clergy ◦ the White and Black Clergy ◦ Monks ◦ the Clergy of Other Churches ◦ Incomes of the Russian Clergy ◦ Nuns ◦ Titles ◦ Habits of the Priests ◦ Devotion of the People to Pictures of their Saints ◦ Tolerant Spirit of the Russian Clergy

    CHAPTER XXI

    FESTIVALS AND FASTS ◦ The Easter Festiva l◦ Butter-Week ◦ the Katsheli ◦ Ice-Mountains ◦ Admiralty Square during Easter ◦ Equipages of the Grandees ◦ the Wooden Theatres ◦ the Burning Theatre ◦ Its Victims ◦ Fates ◦ the Great Fast ◦ Its Monotony ◦ Palm Sunday ◦ Easter-Eggs ◦ Holy Thursday ◦ Good Friday ◦ Easter Eve ◦ Easter Kisses ◦ Recollection Monday, a Festival-Day in the Cemeteries

    CHAPTER XXII

    LITERATURE AND EDUCATION ◦ Early History of Literature ◦ First Grammar of the Language ◦ Michael Lomonosoff ◦ Literature during the Reign of Catherine II. ◦ Cheraskoff, “the Russian Homer” ◦ Other Poets ◦ Progress of Russian Letters during the Present Century◦Nicholas Karamzin ◦ Poets of the Nineteenth Century ◦ Voyages and Travels ◦ Alexander Pushkin ◦ Nicholas Gogol ◦ Alexander Bestushev ◦ Historical Romances ◦ Count Solohonpe ◦ Female Writers ◦ Historical Science ◦ Statistics◦ the Drama ◦ Theatrical Amusements ◦ Theatres in St. Petersburg ◦ the Russian Alphabet ◦ the Slavonic Dialects ◦ Popular Instruction ◦ Educational Statistics

    CHAPTER XXIII

    MEANS OF TRAVEL ◦ First Railway in Russia ◦ Railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow ◦ Oliphant’s Description of a Passage over this Road ◦ Other Railways Projected ◦ Roads and Roadside Accommodation ◦ Sledge-Travelling ◦ Posthouses ◦ Posting ◦ Cabinet-Couriers ◦ Diligences ◦ the Malle-Poste ◦ Post Telega ◦ Drosky ◦ Ivoshtshiks ◦ Pedestrian Privileges

    CHAPTER XXIV

    HISTORIC SUMMARY – EARLY ANNALS ◦ Sarraatians and Scythians ◦ Slavonians ◦ Varagians ◦ Rurik ◦ Igor and Oleg ◦ the Petchenegans ◦ the Drevlians ◦ Olga and Sviatoslaff ◦ Yaropolk ◦ Vladimir ◦ Yaroslav ◦ Monomachus ◦ Conflagration of Kiev ◦ Famine at Novgorod ◦ Tartar Invasion ◦ Yury I. ◦ Batou Khan ◦ Yury II. ◦ Yaroslav II. ◦ Alexander Nevski ◦ Wars with the Tartars ◦ Ivan I. and II. ◦ Dmitri III. and IV. ◦ “Battle of the Giants” ◦ Vassili II. ◦ Ivan III. ◦ Destruction of the Golden Horde ◦ Vassili IV. ◦ Ivan IV. the Terrible ◦ Origin of the Title “Czar” ◦ Formation of the Strelitzes ◦ Fedor I. ◦ Boris Godunoff ◦ Famine in Moscow ◦ the False Dmitris ◦ Vladislaus ◦ Michael Romanoff ◦ Wars with the Swedes and Poles ◦ Alexis ◦ Fedor III. ◦ Accession of Peter the Great

    CHAPTER XXV

    HISTORIC SUMMARY – PETER THE GREAT TO NICHOLAS ◦ Intrigues of Sophia, Half-Sister to Peter, to obtain the Crown ◦ Joint Reign of Peter and Ivan V., with Sophia ◦ Insurrection of the Strelitzes ◦ Deposition of Sophia ◦ Death of Ivan ◦ War with Turkey ◦ War with Sweden ◦ Peace of Nystadt ◦ War with Persia ◦ Death of Peter ◦ His Character ◦ His Manual Dexterity and Mechanical Knowledge ◦ His Travels ◦ Catherine I. ◦ Her Previous History ◦ Her Measures ◦ Her Death ◦ Peter II. ◦ Menehikoff◦ Anne ◦ War with Turkey ◦ Ivan VI. ◦ Elizabeth Petrowna ◦ War with Sweden ◦ War with Prussia ◦ Peter III. ◦ His Assassination ◦ Catherine II. ◦ War with Turkey ◦ Potemkin ◦ Suwarrow ◦ Partition of Poland ◦ Catherine’s Death ◦ Her Character ◦ Paul I. ◦ Events of his Reign ◦ His Eccentricities ◦ His Assassination ◦ Accession of Alexander I. ◦ Treaty of Amiens ◦ War with France ◦ Battles of Austerlitz and Eylau ◦ Treaty of Tilsit ◦ War with Sweden ◦ Capture of Finland ◦ Allied War against France ◦ Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia ◦ Battle of Borodino ◦ Capture and Conflagration of Moscow ◦ Blowing up of the Kremlin ◦ Retreat of the French ◦ The European Powers allied against Napoleon ◦ His Overthrow ◦ Death of Alexander ◦ His Character

    CHAPTER XXVI

    HISTORIC SUMMARY – REIGN OF NICHOLAS I ◦ Early Life of Nicholas ◦ His Marriage and Family ◦ Death of his Daughter the Grand-Duchess Alexandra ◦ Her Cenotaph at Czarsko Selo ◦ Renunciation of the Throne by Constantine ◦ Attempted Revolution◦ Its Suppression ◦ War with Persia ◦ War with Turkey ◦ Campaigns of 1828-1829 ◦ Polish Revolution of 1831 ◦ Its Suppression ◦ Asiatic Cholera ◦ Protection to Turkey in the War with Mehemet Ali ◦ Russian Agency in Crushing the Hungarian Revolution in 1848 ◦ War with Turkey in 1853-1854 ◦ Invasion of the Danubian Principalities by Russia ◦ Destruction of the Turkish Fleet at Sinope ◦ Interference of France and England ◦ Declarations of War by Turkey, France, and England ◦ Counter Declaration of Russia ◦ Conclusion

    #439009

    Anonymous

    I will have to read some parts in a week or two, when my Internet will speed up a bit. Thanks for sharing! :)

    #439013

    Anonymous

    @GaiusCoriolanus  I can print any section you want here, if that will help. 

    #439016

    Anonymous

    @Karpivna, thanks. :D I have a plan to read the chapters about “Little and Western Russia” and “Russian Poland”. But that can be a lot of text.

    #439017

    Anonymous

    @GaiusCoriolanus Here is an excerpt from Russian Poland. I don’t know how accurate this book is, but it is interesting, nonetheless.

    The Poles are the descendants of various Slavonic tribes, who, in the
    sixth century, having proceeded up the Dnieper, entered the basin of the
    Vistula, drove out the Finns —the original inhabitants —and made themselves
    masters of the whole country, from the Warta eastward, and around
    the shores of the Baltic. They are a remarkably fine race of people, being
    well formed, strong, active, ardent, and daring. In their general appearance,
    they are said to resemble the western Asiatics rather than tlie Europeans,
    which has led some ethnographers to the belief that they are of
    Tartar origin. The gentry are haughty and brave, but, at the same time,
    frank and generous. The peasantry, however, bowed down by continual
    oppression, are cringing and servile ; their whole behavior evincing the
    state of abject servility from which they are now being emancipated. The
    nobility are very numerous in Poland, amounting at present to not less
    than two hundred and eighty-three thousand individuals ! 

    #439018

    Anonymous

    @Karpivna, it is interesting indeed. :D Surely there may be some mistakes, as I presume the author based on commonly believed myths at that times. But these myths may be only about the history, while the book is now historical itself, as the book may explain the reality in 19th century.

    #441707

    Anonymous


    Just thought this was funny, and couldn’t find a better place to post it. Sorry.

    #441709

    Anonymous
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