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  • #345017

    Anonymous

    Inspired by Svelad's topic ( Thanks bro) I thought I'd make a contribution here. I have some time on my hands while my computer is compling this new database for work.:P

    Disclaimer: This covers mostly Slavic rulers of Croatia. Most of the Slavs are Croat but some are not so I do not wish to incite a flame war here with any other South Slavs that 'want a piece of that.' Croatia had its share of Hungarian and Austrian royalty as well but locally it was still mostly ruled by Slavs. Again I will focus on the Slavic element.

    Useful info: Sometimes 'different Croatias' might be mentioned such as 'White,' 'Literrol.' and ' Pannonian.' White Croatia refers to either the ancient homeland in 'Little Poland' or to most of Dalmatian Croatia. Literrol also refers to most of Dalmatian Croatia including some territories in eastern Istria. Pannonian Croatia refers to northern Croatia and Slavonia.

    Onward:

    [size=12pt]Vojnomir or Voynomir, [/size] ( also claimed by Slovenes :P)was a duke of Pannonian Croatia,[1] who ruled over Slavonia from c. 790 to c. 800 or from 791 to c. 810.[2][3] Vojnomir is also known as Wonomyrus Sclavus (declined as Wonomyro Sclavo, Uuonomyro Sclavo or Uuonomiro Sclavo),[4] because of his Slavic origin.

    Vojnomir is known for fighting the Avars during their occupation of Croatia. Helped by Frankish troops under the King Charlemagne, he launched a counterattack in 791. The campaign was successful and the Avars were driven out of Croatia. In return for the help of Charlemagne, Vojnomir was obliged to recognize the Frankish sovereignty, to convert to Christianity and to have his territory named Pannonian Croatia.

    During the phase of Franko-Avarian war between the King Charlemagne and the Avarian kagan in the late 795 AD or in the year 796 AD, Friulian and Frankish troops were led into Pannonia by Eric of Friuli and by his companion Vojnomir.[10] This army was not seriously resisted by Avarians and many Avarian forts were conquered.[10] Vojnomir's leading position in the campaign has been presumed as very possible with regard to the textual analysis of Annales regni Francorum.[11]

    Vojnomir remains an enigmatic historical personality. Even the correct reading of his name is unclear. Instead of Vojnomir the original Wonomyro (Uuonomiro, Uuonomyro) could also be read as Zvonimir, just like the name of Croat king Demetrius Zvonimir has been corrupted in Svinimiro.[12] There are three most reliable hypotheses about his origin: the Pannonian hypothesis, the career hypothesis and the Carniolan hypothesis.[13][14] At least two explanations could be read in the context of modern nationalistic mythology: Slovene and German authors from the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary are prone to support the Carniolan origin and Croatian authors are prone to support the Pannonian or the Istrian origin

    Vojnomir was a duke or prince (Croatian: knez) of Pannonian Croatia, who ruled over Slavonia from c. 790 to c. 800 or from 791 to c. 810.[2][3] He is known for fighting the Avars during their occupation of northern Croatia. He launched a joint counterattack with the help of Frankish troops under King Charlemagne in 791. The offensive was successful and the Avars were driven out of Croatia. In return for the help of Charlemagne, Vojnomir was obliged to recognize the Frankish sovereignty, to convert to Christianity and to have his territory named Pannonian Croatia.[3][5][6][7][8] In a major victory against Avars in 796, he aided Charlemagne, and the Franks made themselves overlords over the Croatians of northern Dalmatia, Slavonia and Pannonia.[15]

    On Christmas Day in 800, a year after the Siege of Trsat, the Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter's Basilica.[16] Nicephorus I of the Byzantine Empire and Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire settle their imperial boundaries in 803.[16] Following these events, known as the Pax Nicephori, the Principality of Dalmatian Croatia peacefully accepted limited Frankish overlordship.[16] Contrary to Dalmatian Croatia, after the death of duke Vojnomir, a former Frankish ally of Pannonian Croatia led a resistance to Frankish domination under the leadership of duke Ljudevit Posavski.[17]

    [size=12pt]Ljudevit Posavski [/size] (Trans-Savian) was a Duke of Pannonian Croatia[1] from 810 to 823. The capital of his realm was in Sisak. As the ruler of the Pannonian Slavs, he led an unsuccessful resistance to Frankish domination. He held close ties with the Carantanian and Carniolan tribes and with the Timočani tribe. In 818 Ljudevit sent his emissaries to Emperor Louis in Heristal. They described the horrors conducted by Cadolah and his men in Pannonia, but the King of Franks refused to make peace.

    Ljudevit raised a rebellion against his Frankish rulers in 819 after he was seriously accused by the Frankish court. The Emperor Louis the Pious (814-840) sent Margrave Cadolah of Friuli (800-819) to quell the rebellion. The Frankish Frontier forces led by Cadolah have raided the land and tortured the population, most notably the children.

    As the Pannonian Slavs were amassing forces, so did the Franks led by Cadolah return in 819. But the Frankish forces were soon defeated; and Cadolah himself had to retreat back to his home Friuli, where soon he died of disease.

    In July 819 on the Council in Ingelheim Ljudevit's emissaries offered truce conditions, but Emperor Louis refused; demanding more concessions to him. Ljudevit started to gather allies for his plight. His original ally was Duke Borna (Dux Dalmatiae et Liburniae) – the leader of the Guduscani (Gačani), but the Frankish ruler had promised Borna that he would make him Prince of Pannonia if he helped the Franks to crush Ljudevit's rebellion; so Borna accepted. Ljudevit found assistance among the Karantanian and Carniolan Slavs who, as neighbours of the margravate of Friuli, were jeopardized the same as the Pannonians. The Serbs around the valley of Timok – Timočani also joined him, because they were jeoperdized by the neighbouring Bulgars.

    The Franks sent a large army led by the new Margrave of Friuli, duke Baldric of Friuli to meet Ljudevit in autumn, the same year while he was conscripting more Carantanian troops along the river of Drava. The Frankish forces had numerical advantage, so they pushed Ljudevit and his men from Carniola across the Drava. Ljudevit had to fall back to central parts of his realm. Balderic didn't push to chase Ljudevit, since he had to pacify the Karantanians. Duke Borna moved with Ljudevit's father-in-law Dragomuž and their forces from the south-west. At the heat of the Battle of Kupa, his own Guduscani abandoned Borna and crossed to Ljudevit's side; while Dragomuž was killed. Borna escaped from the battlefield with the help of his bodyguards.
    Ljudevit seized the opportunity and breached into Dalmatia in December. His forces raided Dalmatia. Borna was too weak, so the Dalmatian Croats defended themselves through sneaky tactics and used attrition as their best ally to exhaust the Pannonian forces. Harsh winter came to the hill areas, so Ljudevit was forced to return. According to Borna's reports to the Frankish Emperor, Ljudevit suffered heavy casualties: 3,000 soldiers, over 300 horses and lots of food. In January of 820, Borna made an alliance with the Frankish Emperor in Aachen. The plan was to crush Ljudevit's realm with a joint-attack from three sides. As soon as the winter retreated, massive Frankish armies were being amassed in Italia, East Francia, Bavaria, Saxony and Alemannia that were going to simultaneously invade Ljudevit's lands in the spring. The northern Frankish group moved from Bavaria across Pannonia to make an invasion across the river of Drava. Ljudevit's forces successfully stopped this Army at the river. The southern group moved across the Noric Alps, using the road from Aquileia to Emona. Ljudevit was successful again, as he stopped them before crossing the Alps. The central group moved from Tyrol to Carniola. Ljudevit attempted to halt its advance three times, but every single time would the Franks win, using numerical advantage. When this Army reached the Drava, Ljudevit had to fall back to the heart of his realm.

    The Franks have opened ways for the southern and northern Armies, so they launched a total invasion. Ljudevit concluded that all resistance would be futile, so he retreated to a stronghold that he built on top of hill that was heavily fortified; while his people took shelter in local forest and swamps. Ljudevit did not negotiate with the Franks. The Franks eventually retreated from his lands, with their ranks thinned by disease which the northern forces caught in the marshes of Drava. The Slavs from Carantania lost their internal independence and were forced to recognize the Friulian margrave Balderic as their ruler, while some remained loyal to Ljudevit. Prince Borna died in 821, and was succeeded by Ljudevit's nephew, Vladislav. Emperor Louis recognized as Prince of Dalmatia and Liburnia in February 821 at the Council of Aachen.

    The Emperor discussed again about war plans against Ljudevit on that Council. The Franks decided to repeat the progress, and push towards Ljudevit from three sides again. Ljudevit saw that it was obvious that he couldn't fight the Franks on open field, so he began to construct massive fortifications. He was helped by the Venetian Patriarch Fortunat who sent him architects and masons from Italy.

    During the last and final Frankish invasion of 822, the Patriarch from Grad, Fortunat, who was a supporter of Ljudevit, fled to Zadar into exile with the Byzantines. According to Einhard, the writer of the Royal Frankish Annals, following the final Frankish attack, Ljudevit escaped from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs. Ljudevit was welcomed at the unnamed Serbian ruler's court, but he tricked him, killing him and then taking the power for himself. Some believe the Serbian ruler was an ally of the Franks and Ljudevit thought that he was about to betray him. Ljudevit soon sent an envoy to the Frankish court, claiming that he is ready to recognize the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious as his supreme ruler. Ljudevit's reign was not very well accepted amongst the Serbs, so he fled to Borna's uncle, Ljudemisl of Dalmatia. Ljudemisl had Ljudevit killed in 823.

    #409567

    Anonymous

    Ratimir[size=12pt][/size] (or Radoslav) (Latin: Ratimirus) was a Croatian duke or prince (knez), Bulgarian-imposed Duke of Pannonian Croatia from ca. 829 to 838.[1] His name contents the word "rat", meaning "war", and "mir", meaning "peace". It is believed that Ratimir descends from a royal dynasty that provided rulers for Moravia and Croatia.

    In 827, the Bulgars under Great Khan Omurtag invaded and conquered the Croatian Principality of Southern Pannonia (Savia) and parts of territories to the north of Savia, that were a part of Frankish kingdom. In 829 they imposed a local Prince Ratimir as the new ruler of Pannonia in their name. Nine years later (838) after the Bulgarian conquest of Macedonia, the Danubian Count Ratbod, Head of the East March, deposed Prince Ratimir and restored Frankish rule in Pannonia.

    After the attack of Ratbod, Ratimir fled, and in Pannonian Croatia, in the name of the Franks, ruled Slav dukes Pribina and Kocelj from today's western Hungary Blatnograd/Zalavar or Keszthely.

    Unlike his predecessors, Ratimir experienced a rift in relations with the Christian Byzantine Empire.[2]

    [size=12pt]Braslav [/size] or Bräslav was the last duke or prince (knez) of Pannonian Croatia (Southern Pannonia, Transsavian Croatia) in 880-898/900 vassalaged to the Kingdom of East Francia. The territory he was responsible for was extended by the Franks to include the territory of the former Principality of Lower Pannonia (frequently called just "Pannonia" by Frankish texts) in 896.

    Braslav fought against his Slavic neighbour, the Great Moravian king Svatopluk I in the service of King Arnulf of East Francia. The alliance against Great Moravia expanded when the newly-arrived Hungarians joined the fight on the Frankish King's side. After Svatopluk's death in 894, the Hungarians turned against the Frankish King, so King Arnulf gave the Principality of Lower Pannonia to Prince Braslav, seeking to save what could be saved from Hungarian pillages. Thereby, Braslav also became a ruler of the Carinthians living in present-day eastern-most Austria and around Ptuj. The fate of Pannonia could not be changed, as the Hungarians overran it in 900/901, thus ending Braslav's reign.

    [size=12pt]Radoslov[/size] ( 688 A.D.) was a Croat Prince of Coastal , Dalmatian or 'White Croatia' ( in the Balkans, Croats also went by the classic Red/White designations even in their homeland) Croatian historian Vjekoslav Klaić speaks of Radoslov being in constant conflict with the Arbans and even defeating them as far a south as Albania. There is no solid evidence suggesting Radoslov did this though. There isn't much written about Radoslov, all we know for sure is that he was a Prince in Dalmatia that fought pirates.

    [size=12pt]Kuber [/size] ( 758 A.D.) An early Croatian local prince who ruled in Srijem. It is believed that this Croat prince had the last skrimish with the Avars and finally defeated them in Pannonia in 758 A.D. somewhere in Srijem.

    [size=12pt]Porga[/size], Porgas or Borko (fl. 641–660) was one of the first dukes or princes (Croatian: knez) of Littoral Croatia. The De Administrando Imperio mentions that Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641) settled the White Croats in Croatia after they had expelled the Avars, during the rule of Porga's father.[1] He then continues that Heraclius sent priests from Rome, and appointed an archbishop, a bishop, elders and deacons of these, and baptized the Croats, which were then under the rule of Porgas.[1] H. H. Howorth in The Spread of the Slaves (1878) believed Porga to be the son of one of the five brothers that left White Croatia.[3] Howorth notes that the name is uncommon, and mentions Schafarik who compared the name to Purgas, which was the name of a Mordwin chief mentioned in 1229, making it possible that the Croats were subjects to alien princes, perhaps Avars.[3]

    #409568

    Anonymous

    [size=12pt]Višeslav[/size] was one of the first princes or dukes (Croatian: Knez) of Littoral Croatia.[1]

    image
    Baptismal font of Višeslav

    He ruled with the support of the Pope and Byzantium. The Croats warred against the Franks during his rule and avoided defeat until 803 – a year after his death. During the Siege of Trsat in the autumn of 799 between the defending forces of the Dalmatian Croatia under the leadership of Croatian duke Višeslav and the invading Frankish army of the Carolingian Empire, the Frankish commander Eric of Friuli was killed.[2][3] Ultimately, his duchy did accept Frankish overlordship through Pax Nicephori.

    Višeslav left behind a baptismal font (in Croatian: Višeslavova krstionica), surviving to this day, which remains an important symbol of early Croatian history and the people's conversion to Christianity. The inscription is in Latin, and mentions the name of a priest named John (Ivan) who baptized people during "the time of Duke Višeslav" in the honor of John the Baptist.[4

    [size=12pt]Borna[/size] was the Knez of Littoral Croatia in 803–821 under the Frankish Empire. He was the son of his predecessor, Višeslav. Borna is documented in the Royal Frankish Annals.

    In 819 Duke Ljudevit Posavski of Pannonian Croatia raised a rebellion against the Franks, while Borna remained loyal to the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and struck with his forces at his former traditional ally, bribed by the Emperor's offers of expansion of power. Borna moved with Ljudevit's father-in-law, Dragomuž, from the southeast. The famous battle of Kupa occurred at the river of Kupa. In the heat of Battle the Guduscans – an indigenous people of his realm – abandoned Borna and crossed to Ljudevit's side. Borna would have been killed at the battlefield, if not for his elite bodyguards, while Dragomuž was killed on spot.

    Ljudevit used the momentum of Borna's weakness and invaded Littoral Croatia in December of the same year. Borna's forces suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Kupa, so Borna decided that his forces should fight relying on attrition and exhausting of Ljudevit's troops. Harsh winter came to the hills of Borna's realm, further disabling Ljudevit's pillaging. Ljudevit was eventually forced to retreat, while much of their food reserves were left behind and confiscated by Borna. Borna reported his successes to the Frankish Emperor, stating that Ljudevit lost over 3,000 soldiers and 300 horses in his campaign.

    Borna met with the Frankish Emperor in Aachen in January of 820, where they forged an alliance. The Emperor of the Franks prepared a massive invasion of Ljudevit's lands and those of his allies. Although the total invasion of Ljudevit's realm occurred, Borna died in the heat of battle in 821 after Ljudevit and his supporters retreated to the most fortified of their fortresses, hills and most unreachable swamps ad forests. He was succeeded by his nephew, Vladislav.

    Ljudevit had no knowledge of Borna's death and at the beginning of 823, he went to Littoral Croatia in search of his uncle seeking help after he was dethroned and exiled. Borna's uncle, Ljudemisl, received him instead, who had Ljudevit tortured and killed. After a temporary reign by Ljudemisl as a viceroy, the throne of Littoral Croatia was passed on to Vladislav, Borna's nephew.

    [size=12pt]Vladislav[/size] was a nephew and successor of Duke Borna of Littoral Croatia. He reigned, as Duke of Littoral Croatia, from February 821 to ca. 835.[1]

    Most information about Vladislav is carried by the Royal Frankish Annals when it speaks about Borna's death.[2] It is uncertain until what year Vladislav was active as a monarch, however most historians cite the year 835 as an approximate end of his rule. Duke Vladislav ruled from Nin as a loyal vassal of the Frankish Emperor Lothair I.

    [size=12pt]Ljudemisl[/size] was Borna's uncle and according to some sources , the immediate ruler of Dalmatian Croatia after Borna's death. This is believed because in the Frankish Annals when it speaks of Ljudevit Posavski fleeing to Dalmatia to Borna's uncle he is named Ljudemisl. It's unclear whether he was a recognized ruler as Borna was though.

    [size=12pt]Mislav [/size] was the Duke (Croatian: Knez) of Littoral Croatia in 835–845.[1]

    Mislav succeeded Vladislav as the Duke of Littoral Croatia. He ruled from Klis in central Dalmatia, when he made Klis Fortress seat to his throne.[2] Mislav was pious ruler. He built the Church of Saint George in Putalj (on the slopes of hill Kozjak). Today's Kaštel Sućurac got its name after the village of sv. Jure (Saint George), named after that church.

    He is chiefly known for signing a treaty with Pietro Tradonico, doge of Venetian Republic in 839, which led to the growth of Croatian sea power.[3] Duke Mislav maintained good relations with the neighbouring coastal Cities of Byzantine Dalmatia unlike his predecessor, which also led to the growth of Croatian sea power as Mislav modelled Croatian ships in the likehood of the Neretvians and Venetians.

    Mislav was succeeded by Trpimir I after his death in 845.[1]

    #409569

    Anonymous

    Mate there is absolutely no evidence Vojnomir the Slav was any duke. There is actually not even any proof from where he came from. So both Pannonian and Carniolan hypotheses are stuff romantic nationalism imho!  My guess is and this has been propoused by several historians that he wasn’t any duke or ruler rather a military man who knew the area well. This supported by the fact he isn’t mentioned as ruler of any land instead just a military ruler. This is Frankish military leader hypotheses which unlike ther other one has evidence;

    The military hypothesis claims that Vojnomir was only a Slav making a career in the Frankish troops. From the only reliable contemporary source, Annales regni Francorum, it is known that Vojnomir was a military leader. His status of a duke or a prince is not mentioned at all. In the past most of the historians described Vojnomir as one of Slavic dukes or princes in the neighbourhood of Friuli. However, it is hard to believe that a leader of a foreign land could be accepted as a Frankish military leader by the Franks. He was probably only an exceptional Slavic individual who made his career in the Frankish army and perhaps he was only a Friulian Slav. Vojnomir could also be a military leader from Istria.

    #409570

    Anonymous

    I agree. He is generally regarded by Croatian historians as some kind of leader ( military) in the Slavic Pannonian state.

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