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  • #344025

    Anonymous

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    Secret Soviet programs, bases, etc. Were there any less known Soviet programs, bases, etc? I mean the stuff in line with US AVRO Lockheed Martin and Area 51; :D we have all heard of German and US secret operations and technologies, but what about Soviet and Yugoslav ones?

    AVRO Lockheed Martin Flying Saucer from the 1940's

    #395581

    Anonymous

    Not less epic place of the former Soviet territory was the nuclear testing place on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the north of Russia. That object is very famous at least because of the test the most powerful thermonuclear bomb in the history of humanity – Tsar Bomba.

    Location of Novaya Zemlya in relation to northern Europe:

    [img width=600]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Ivan_bomb.png” />

    Common view on the nuclear test site:

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    That's actually the reason why that place had become so famous:

    Ядерный взрыв Царь-Бомбы

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    From Wiki: "The original, November 1961 A.E.C. estimate of the yield was 55–60 Mt, but since 1991 all Russian sources have stated its yield as 50 Mt. Khrushchev warned in a filmed speech to the Supreme Soviet of the existence of a 100 Mt bomb (technically the design was capable of this yield). Although simplistic fireball calculations predicted the fireball would impact the ground, the bomb's own shock wave reflected back and prevented this.[9] The fireball reached nearly as high as the altitude of the release plane and was seen almost 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from ground zero. The subsequent mushroom cloud was about 64 kilometres (40 mi) high (over seven times the height of Mount Everest), which meant that the cloud was above the stratosphere and well inside the mesosphere when it peaked. The base of the cloud was 40 kilometres (25 mi) wide. All buildings in the village of Severny (both wooden and brick), located 55 kilometres (34 mi) from ground zero within the Sukhoy Nos test range, were destroyed. In districts hundreds of kilometers from ground zero wooden houses were destroyed, stone ones lost their roofs, windows and doors; and radio communications were interrupted for almost one hour. One participant in the test saw a bright flash through dark goggles and felt the effects of a thermal pulse even at a distance of 270 kilometres (170 mi). The heat from the explosion could have caused third-degree burns 100 km (62 mi) away from ground zero. A shock wave was observed in the air at Dikson settlement 700 kilometres (430 mi) away; windowpanes were partially broken to distances of 900 kilometres (560 mi). Atmospheric focusing caused blast damage at even greater distances, breaking windows in Norway and Finland. The seismic shock created by the detonation was measurable even on its third passage around the Earth.[10] Its seismic body wave magnitude was about 5 to 5.25.[9] The energy yield was around 7.1 on the Richter scale but, since the bomb was detonated in air rather than underground, most of the energy was not converted to seismic waves. The TNT equivalent of the 50 Mt test could be represented by a cube of TNT 312 meters (1023 feet) on a side, approximately the height of the Eiffel Tower."

    [hr]

    In the island was made 42 underground nuclear explosions in mines:

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    The most powerful underground nuclear test was made 12.09.73. Northern testing includes four separate nuclear devices exploded almost simultaneously, but in a complex configuration under the Black mountain with depth about 1500 meters.

    [img width=700 height=646]http://uzm.spb.ru/archive/nz_nuke/nz_b1.jpg” />

    The largest PNIs the northern section has resulted in severe fragmentation of rock with a large gathering of the size and the significant changes in surface topography. More than 80 million cubic meters of rock were thrown down in the form of a massive avalanche. Gathering soil blocked the entrance to the valley, and two glacial stream. For debris avalanche formed lake is 2 km long .. The volume of damaged section is 800 x 1700 m2. And the size of the area covered by debris is 1600 x 2200 m2 with a thickness of 20-50 m

    image

    At least two times, in 1969 and 1987 took place on the island of abnormal situations during testing, when an hour after the explosion of a radioactive wave goes outside of ground. Staff received radiation dose.

    The town Severniy on the island:

    [img width=700 height=646]http://uzm.spb.ru/archive/nz_nuke/nz_severni.jpg” />

    Entrance to the testing tunnel:

    [img width=700 height=646]http://uzm.spb.ru/archive/nz_nuke/nz_a13.jpg” />

    Airport:

    [img width=700 height=646]http://uzm.spb.ru/archive/nz_nuke/nz_air.jpg” />

    Source

    #395582

    Anonymous

    Wow thanks Scythian! :D

    #395583

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Wow thanks Scythian! :D

    Thanks for the interesting idea about this topic.

    [hr]

    This is probably an urban legend, because all sources are very unreliable and controversial.. According to some authors, Soviet Union like Nazi Germany and the USA had projects of Subterrenes in 1930s and 1960s. At least we have article about them in Russian Wiki.

    "Photo" of this device near Ural mountain "Blagodat' " in 1930s:

    image

    In the time of the arms race, the Soviets sought ways to deliver nuclear weapons in the U.S. One possible way was to deliver nuclear bomb under ground. It is believed that such devices could even have a nuclear power engine.

    In 1964, the plant was built and produced the first Soviet atomic underground boat, called "Battle Mole." Underground boat had titanium case with a pointed bow and stern diameter of 3.8 m and a length of 35 m crew consisted of 5 people. In addition, she was able to take on 15 other people landing and a ton of explosives. Main power plant – nuclear reactor – let her develop speed underground to 7 km / h Its combat mission was to destroy underground command centers and enemy missile silos.

    The first tests of the "fighting mole" in the autumn was in 1964. Underground boat showed amazing results, passing a difficult ground "like a knife through butter" and destroying underground bunker of imaginary enemy.

    Fantasy of modern painter:

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    Further testing continued in the Urals, in the Rostov region, and in more solid ground near the Moscow.  Likely, this is the hole after device testing:

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    Authors of stories claim that during the tests an incident occurred and the project was canceled..

    #395584

    Anonymous

    Nice Scythian. Too bad you guys haven't developed that underground thing, would be interesting however i believe easy to detect ;D

    anyway to contribute:

    [size=14pt]Vadim Chernobrov & Russian secret experiments with time machines[/size]

    A disturbing story in the March, 2005. 1 issue of Pravda suggests that the U. S. Government is working on the discovery of a mysterious point over the South Pole that may be a passageway backward in time. According to the article, some American and British scientists working in Antarctica on January 27, 1995, noticed a spinning gray fog in the sky over the pole. U. S. physicist Mariann McLein said at first they believed it to be some kind of sandstorm. But after a while they noticed that the fog did not change its form and did not move so they decided to investigate.

    They sent up a weather balloon, at the end of a rope, with some equipment attached. To their surprise the balloon immediately disappeared after entering the fog, although the rope hung there, as if still attached. After a few minutes the team pulled on the rope and the balloon reappeared. When they brought it back to the ground they were surprised to find that a chronometer on the balloon displayed the date as January 27, 1965, exactly 30 years earlier. The team repeated the experiment several times, and each time the chronometer's date changed to the earlier time. The phenomenon was reported to the White House under the name "Time Gate."

    They sent up a weather balloon, at the end of a rope, with some equipment attached. To their surprise the balloon immediately disappeared after entering the fog, although the rope hung there, as if still attached. After a few minutes the team pulled on the rope and the balloon reappeared. When they brought it back to the ground they were surprised to find that a chronometer on the balloon displayed the date as January 27, 1965, exactly 30 years earlier. The team repeated the experiment several times, and each time the chronometer's date changed to the earlier time. The phenomenon was reported to the White House under the name "Time Gate."

    According to the story the CIA and FBI are fighting to gain control over this project, which seems to be a link to a tunnel that permits penetration into the past. Experiments have advanced to the point of actually sending people through the rift. Their safe return is an unknown.

    Of course the Russians are watching all of this with great interest. The story talked about various Russian experiments with time machines and theories about the possibility of slowing or speeding up time.

    Russian author Gennady Belimov published an article in which he described experiments led by Vadim Chernobrov, the inventor of a time machine in 1987. Chernobrov claims his machine can slow or speed up the course of time by tinkering with the Earth's magnetic field. His biggest success was the slowing of time for 1.5 seconds.

    While all of this sounds a bit like one of Grimm's Fairy Tales, I have to give the report some level of credibility. I know that time does not seem to exist in the spiritual or astral realm outside of our three-dimensional existence on this planet. Time appears to be an invention of third dimensional reality to allow humans to keep their bearings as we proceed through the brief life spans allowed in these bodies.

    One of the problems remote viewers have is acquiring time lines for future or past events that they examine. For example, a viewer might foresee a major catastrophe like a volcanic eruption, airplane crash or hurricane, but pinning down an exact moment when it will occur is extremely difficult. To deal with this problem, Aaron C. Donahue spent years developing an advanced form of viewing, which he calls the acquisition and practical application of non-historical data.

    Even with his new technique, Donahue has trouble pinning down exact dates of future events. For example, he said he foresees some kind of explosive thermal event occurring at Yellowstone National Park sometime this year and thinks it might happen this spring. But he can't give us an exact date.

    As an old science fiction buff, I have had years to think and read about the consequences of human travel through time. Traveling forward in time would be strange enough. And we might be able to do something like that without upsetting the balance of things.

    But if we could go backwards, even under the strictest of conditions, it is possible that by a single act, we could alter the entire course of history. Simply carrying an evolved bacteria or a genetically modified virus on our shirt sleeve into the distant past might launch a world-wide epidemic that would kill millions of people, some of whom would be the thinkers, inventers and composers of some of the great human offerings of that period.

    That the CIA and/or FBI are tinkering with time travel is most distressing. The covert operations they perform could take on a whole new meaning if they are ever given the opportunity to travel into the past and make a few adjustments in world events.

    What is troubling is that we have no way of knowing that they aren't already doing it. For those of us in the daily stream of world events, a shift in history might wipe out thousands of people and change entire governments. But for us, the change would go into our memory of events as they happened during our lives. That good friend we went bowling with last night might disappear before the next morning and we would not notice his loss. By the time we awake, the person never existed.

    In the past I have thought how time travel, if available to a few of us, would be a most useful tool for saving the looming fate of our dying world. But then what would any of us do, short of going to war with the angelic realm, to make a significant difference?

    Putting this tool in the hands of an angelic-Christian driven team of government agents can only mean worse trouble than we have already have. Come to think of it, that kind of time tinkering might explain how things have become as quickly out-of-whack as they currently are.

    Time has been one of the most complicated and less studied scientific issues since ancient times
    Eight years ago, American and British scientists who conducted investigations in Antarctica made a sensational discovery. US physicist Mariann McLein told of how researchers noticed some spinning gray fog in the sky over the pole on January 27 which they believed to be just an ordinary sandstorm. However, the gray fog did not change in form and did not move in the course of time. The researchers decided to investigate the phenomenon and launched a weather balloon with equipment capable of registering the wind speed, the temperature and the air moisture. But the weather balloon soared upwards and immediately disappeared.

    In a little while, the researchers brought the weather balloon back to the ground with the help of a rope attached to it earlier. They were extremely surprised to see that a chronometer set in the weather balloon displayed the date of January 27, 1965, the same day 30 years ago. The experiment was repeated several times after the researchers found out the equipment was in good repair. But each time the watch was back it displayed the past time. The phenomenon was called "the time gate" and was reported to the White House

    Norway Spiral Light (3rd video) 12/09/2009

    Today investigation of the unusual phenomenon is underway. It is supposed that the whirl crater above the South Pole is a tunnel allowing to penetrate into other times. What is more, programs on launching people to other times have been started. The CIA and the FBI are fighting for gaining control over the project that may change the course of history. It is not clear when the US federal authorities will approve the experiment.

    Experiments on the change of the direction and rate of time motion

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    #395585

    Anonymous

    This is all interesting. Keep em' coming guys! :D

    #395586

    Anonymous

    I liked TV shows with this V. Chernobrov, especially when he explores abnormal zones in wild forests with his not less abnormal meaningless devices :)

    Perhaps everybody knows about experiments on eugenics in the Third Reich, similar experiments in Soviet Union were less known. For building the communism required millions of physical endurance and completely brainless units, hybrid of ape with a man would come up to this role best.

    [hr]

    Blasts from the past: The Soviet ape-man scandal

    In February 1926, Russian biologist Ilia Ivanov set out for Guinea in French West Africa, where he planned to perform one of the world's most sensational experiments. Ivanov was an expert in artificial insemination and had used his ground-breaking methods to create an assortment of hybrid animals. Now he was going to try something even more radical – crossing an ape and a human. His trip to Africa was expensive and its purpose highly questionable, yet the Bolshevik government not only sanctioned it but also financed it at a time when few Russians were allowed to leave the country. Why would so eminent a scientist risk his reputation? And why did the Bolsheviks back him?

    IT WAS the story with everything: secret papers, an evil Soviet dictator and a zealous zoologist hell-bent on breeding a creature that was half man, half ape. When details of Ilia Ivanov's attempts to create an ape-human hybrid emerged in the 1990s from the newly opened Russian archives, they prompted a rash of lurid headlines. Ivanov became the "Red Frankenstein". His proposed liaisons were invariably dangerous. There was even the suggestion that he had been ordered to breed super-strong hairy warriors for what The Sun in London dubbed "Stalin's mutant ape army".

    Yet Ivanov's efforts during the 1920s to create an ape-human hybrid had been anything but secret, according to Alexander Etkind, a Soviet-born specialist in Russian history now at the University of Cambridge. Ivanov's project was a sensation at the time and generated almost as many headlines as it would later on, but when no ape-man materialised the fuss died down and his research was forgotten. Some 60 years later, scholars reconstructed events from scattered letters, notebooks and diaries held in assorted government archives. Despite years of digging, however, one vital part of the story remains elusive. "None of these documents reveals why he did it," says Etkind. After examining the available evidence, he thinks he has an answer (Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, vol 39, p 205).

    At the start of the 20th century, Ivanov was internationally acclaimed for his pioneering work in artificial insemination (AI), and having perfected his methods he was keen to see how they could be applied. His first big project was aimed at improving imperial Russia's bloodstock, using sperm from the best stallions. Before long, he was pondering the possibilities of hybridisation: with AI, he reckoned he might be able to create novel types of domestic animal by crossing closely related species. Soon he had produced a zeedonk (zebra-donkey hybrid), a zubron (European bison-cow cross) and various combinations of rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. In 1910, he told a gathering of zoologists that it might even be possible to create hybrids between humans and their closest relatives.

    At that stage, Ivanov was simply speculating, but a decade and a revolution later, he was making plans to put theory into practice. In 1924, he put his proposals to the government. Despite the disapproval of the scientific establishment Ivanov got the go-ahead – and the funds to mount an expedition to Africa to collect apes. Documents show that the decision was pushed through by leading members of the Bolshevik government.

    In February 1926, Ivanov set off for Africa. His first stop was Paris, where he won the enthusiastic support of the directors of the Pasteur Institute and the promise of access to the chimps at its new primate centre in Guinea, then part of French West Africa. He reached Guinea in late March only to discover none of the chimps was mature enough to breed. He would have to return later in the year to capture some chimps of his own.

    Ivanov passed the summer in Paris, where he spent some of his time at the Pasteur Institute working on ways to capture and subdue chimps, and some with the celebrated surgeon Serge Voronoff, inventor of an increasingly fashionable "rejuvenation therapy". In a now notorious operation, Voronoff grafted slices of ape testes into those of rich and ageing men hoping to regain their former vigour. That summer, he and Ivanov made headlines by transplanting a woman's ovary into a chimp called Nora and then inseminating her with human sperm. While the press waited for the outcome, reporters turned their attention to Ivanov's unusual project. The idea of an ape-human hybrid was both shocking and fascinating. Was it possible? Were humans really that closely related to apes? What would the result be like? And what were the Soviets up to?

    In November, Ivanov returned to Guinea, captured his chimps and with considerable difficulty eventually inseminated three of them. By now, he had a second experiment in mind: to inseminate women with chimp sperm. Knowing that no local woman would agree, he planned to do this under the pretext of a medical examination, but the French governor forbade it.

    None of the three chimps conceived. Disappointed, Ivanov headed home with 20 chimps to stock a new ape nursery in the subtropical Soviet republic of Abkhazia. He knew now that his best chance of creating his hybrid was to find Soviet women willing to carry half-ape babies in the interests of science. In the event, only four chimps made it to Abkhazia and so while the nursery set about acquiring more apes, Ivanov looked for volunteers.

    At least five women volunteered. But although the nursery did get hold of an assortment of apes, they never flourished, and by the time Ivanov was ready to proceed the only adult male left was Tarzan, a 26-year-old orang-utan. Ivanov pressed on until fate dealt his project a fatal blow. Tarzan had a brain haemorrhage. "The orang has died, we are looking for a replacement," Ivanov cabled the woman he had lined up to receive Tarzan's sperm. More chimps arrived in 1930 – but Ivanov fell victim to the widespread purge of scientists and was exiled to Kazakhstan. He was released the next year but died soon after.

    So why did Ivanov want so badly to produce a baby that was half-ape, half-human? And why did the Bolsheviks encourage him?

    When Ivanov put his proposal to the Academy of Sciences he painted it as the experiment that would prove men had evolved from apes. "If he crossed an ape and a human and produced viable offspring then that would mean Darwin was right about how closely related we are," says Etkind. When Ivanov approached the government, he stressed how proving Darwin right would strike a blow against religion, which the Bolsheviks were struggling to stamp out. Success would not only bolster the reputation of Soviet science but provide useful anti-religious propaganda to boot.

    That might seem motive enough, yet as Etkind points out, some have suggested that the ageing Bolshevik leaders had something less intellectual in mind. "There is conjecture that Ivanov was sent to Africa to bring back apes in order to provide them with glands for rejuvenation." The Kremlin's doctors certainly dabbled in rejuvenation treatments and Ivanov did have links to Voronoff, but Etkind is not convinced. "If you want to cover up a bizarre scheme to rejuvenate ageing politicians then you wouldn't choose an even more bizarre project that's going to attract a lot of publicity."

    There is a third possible motive – that Ivanov's research was part of an ambitious plan to transform society. The high-ranking Bolsheviks who backed Ivanov were intellectuals who saw science as a means of realising their dream of a socialist utopia. "Politicians could change the political system, nationalise industries and turn farms into vast collectives – but the task of transforming people was entrusted to scientists," says Etkind. "The aim was to match people to the socialist design of Soviet society."

    One way to do that was through "positive eugenics", using AI to speed up the spread of desirable traits – a willingness to live and work communally, for instance – and to get rid of "primitive" traits such as competitiveness, greed and the desire to own property. "There were many projects aimed at changing humanity," Etkind says. "Ivanov's was the most extreme but if he succeeded then that would show that humans could be changed in radical and creative ways."

    Etkind believes this is the most likely reason why the Bolsheviks backed the project and that it was also what motivated Ivanov, at least in part. Like many others, Ivanov was swept along by the Bolshevik dream, he says. "He had proved that AI had the capacity to change nature, and testing its limits was perfectly in tune with the revolutionary times." At the end of the day, Ivanov was a typical Russian intellectual. "His ends and means today sound truly radical. But if you think about it, a successful hybridisation with apes is no more fantastic than a happy life in a communal apartment."

    http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926701.000-blasts-from-the-past-the-soviet-apeman-scandal.html?full=true

    #395587

    Anonymous

    Soviet reactive locomotives:

    [img width=700 height=511]http://nibler.ru/uploads/users/3734/2012-08-15/poezda-neobychnye-eto-interesno-poznavatelno-kartinki_7852894656.jpg” />

    [img width=643 height=700]http://nibler.ru/uploads/users/3734/2012-08-15/poezda-neobychnye-eto-interesno-poznavatelno-kartinki_14829489.jpg” />

    image

    [img width=512 height=700]http://nibler.ru/uploads/users/3734/2012-08-15/poezda-neobychnye-eto-interesno-poznavatelno-kartinki_980899194.jpg” />

    [img width=700 height=525]http://nibler.ru/uploads/users/3734/2012-08-15/poezda-neobychnye-eto-interesno-poznavatelno-kartinki_651773055.jpg” />

    Also, the "aerovagon" of early 1920s :

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    #395588

    Anonymous
    image

    The Tupolev Tu-95M was used as a flying test-bed to develop a nuclear powered bomber and was given the designation Tu-95LAL

    In the late 1940s, as the Cold War began to heat-up, the Soviet Union began research into the development of nuclear reactors as power sources to drive warships. The work was performed at first by an academic Russian engineer, I.V. Kurchatov, which added aviation as a possible recipient of the new nuclear power plants. On August 12th, 1955 the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued a mandate which ordered certain groups within the aviation industry to join forces in this research. As a direct result of the mandate, the design bureaus of Andrei Tupolev and Vladimir Myasishchev became the appointed chief design teams on a project to develop and produce several aircraft designs intended to be powered by nuclear propulsion while a bureau headed by N.D. Kuznetsov and A.M. Lyulka, were assigned to develop the engines for the aircraft.

    They promptly decided on an energy transfer method— Direct Cycle. This method would enable the engines to use energy supplied by a reactor, that would replace the combustion chamber of a jet engine. Several types of nuclear powered engines were tested: ramjet, turboprop and turbojet, with different transfer mechanisms for transmitting the nuclear generated thermal energy. After extensive experimentation with various engines and transfer systems, Soviet engineers concluded that the direct cycle turbojet engine offered the best alternative.

    In the direct cycle power transfer configuration, the incoming air enter through the compressor mechanism of the turbojet engine, then, passes through a plenum that direct the air to the reactor core. Then the air, by this time acting as the reactor coolant additive, is constantly heated as its move through the core. After exiting the core, the air goes back to another plenum and from there is directed to the turbine section of the engines for thrust production. New coolant systems were also tested, as it was the protective shielding for the crew cabin. This and the size of the initial nuclear power plants were the main problem facing engineers working on the project. Shielding the crew and reducing the size and weight of the reactors in order to fit one on an airframe became the main technical hurdle in the project.

    The Tupolev bureau, knowing the complexity of the task assigned to them, estimated that it would be two decades before the program could produce a working prototype. They assumed that the first operational nuclear-assisted airplane could take to the air in the late 1970s or early 1980s. The program was design to operate in development phases. The first phase was designing and testing a small nuclear reactor, which properly began in late 1955.

    On March 1956, the Tupolev bureau was assigned by the Council of Ministers of the USSR the task of producing a flying test-bed plane as soon as possible. The Tupolev engineers decided to take an existing Tu-95M bomber and use it as a nuclear flying laboratory, the plane eventual designation were to be Tu-95LAL.

    image

    Tupolev Tu-95LAL nuclear test-bed airplane.

    By 1958, the ground phase of the program, the rig used to install the nuclear reactor on the aircraft, was ready for testing. Some time during the summer of 1958, the nuclear power plant was turned on and testing commenced. Immediately, the required level of reactor power was achieved, thus opening the path for the flight test phase.

    Between May and August 1961, the Tu-95LAL completed 34 research flights. Much of them made with the reactor shut down. The main purpose of the flight phase was examining the effectiveness of the radiation shielding which was one of the main concerns for the engineers. The massive amount of liquid sodium, beryllium oxide, cadmium, paraffin wax and steel plates; were the sole source of protection for the crew against the deadly radiation emerging from the core. The results were once again promising. Radiation levels were low on the crew cabin, paving the way for the bureau to design a new airframe.

    The next phase in the program was to produce a test aircraft designed from the beginning to use nuclear power as its main propulsion force. This was to be the Aircraft 119. This aircraft was based on the Tu-95 design. The major distinction was that two of its four engines, inboard, were to be the new NK14a turboprops with heat exchangers. The NK14a operates very similar to the direct cycle engines, the main difference is that the air, after passing through the compressor, does not go to the reactor, it goes directly to the heat exchange system. At the same time, the heat generated by the reactor, carried in the form of fluid; go to the heat exchange system. The combination of these two forces would enable the turbojet to produce the require amount of thrust. The other two outboard engines would remain NK12Ms.

    image

    The nuclear engine was housed in the bomb bay.

    The NK Kuznetsov Design Bureau commenced work on the engines at the same time that the schematics of Aircraft 119 were drawn. As in the Tu-95LAL, the internal bomb bay would house the reactor. The connections leading from the reactor to the engines would run thru the main fuselage, up to the wings and then directly to the heat exchangers attached to the two inboard engines. Tupolev estimated that the first 119 were to be available for runway trials by late 1965. After trials, the 119 engines were to be replaced by a four NK14a engine configuration based on the Tu-114 commercial liner. However, the 119 never made it out of the drawing board. Budgetary constraints and the development of new conventional aircrafts designs were cited as the main reason for the cancellation of the program in August 1966.

    The cancellation of Aircraft 119 did not mean that the Soviet Union terminated its research into a nuclear powered aircraft. Several attempts were made in designing a nuclear-powered, supersonic bomber. Around the same time that Tupolev began working on the 119, there was a parallel program code named Aircraft 120. Vast amounts of research hours were invested on this project. Most of them on the design of a new turbojet engine and the layout of a new nuclear reactor system that would have been able to offer more protection to the crew and the aircraft sensitive avionics systems.

    Aircraft 120 was to be fitted with two turbojet engines on development by Kuznetsov. The reactor was to be installed near the rear part of the plane, as far from the cabin as possible. The crew consisted of the pilot, co-pilot, and navigator; enclosed in a heavy lead radiation shielding cabin. The 120 would have a conventional aerodynamics configuration with a high mounted 45 degrees swept wing, a swept empennage and a tricycle landing gear. Tupolev’s goal of reaching the testing phase for the 120 in the late 1970s never materialized, as with the 119, the 120 existence was only on the drawing board. Termination of the program was mainly for the same reasons as for the 119’s.

    Next for Tupolev was the Aircraft 132. Another attempt by the Soviets to produce a serviceable nuclear powered bomber. The 132 was conceived as a low-level strike aircraft. The design 132 would have housed the reactor in the front two turbojet engines, the entire package would be accommodated in the rear of the airframe. The engines were to be designed to operate with nuclear power or with conventional kerosene. The kerosene would be only used for take-off and landing operations and the fuel would be housed in a tank installed in front of the reactor. As with the 120, the 132 would have had a conventional configuration, with the cabin, again, heavily shielded.

    The main difference was the wings configuration. The 132 would have been a delta wing plane. The empennage was also to be swept and the horizontal stabilizer was to be located on top of the fin. As with the other projects, the 132 was cancelled in the mid 1960s for budgetary and, most importantly, technical difficulties.

    image

    Initial M-60 with trapezoid wing. (Image courtesy of Avicopress ©)

    One last attempt was made by the Tupolev bureau to achieve a nuclear powered aircraft. This aircraft would have been supersonic, long ranged bomber designed to compete with Convair’s B-58 Hustler supersonic medium bomber. This time, the aircraft did not make it to the drawing board. In the late 1960s, the Soviet Union decided to abandon further research into the feasibility of a nuclear powered aircraft. The main reason given to the bureaus involved in the project was that with the introduction of more accurate and less expensive Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles aboard nuclear powered Soviet submarines; the Soviet Union could achieve the same degree of nuclear capability at a fraction of the cost. Also, in consideration, but rarely mentioned by the Soviets, was the ecological impact of a crash during operations. Should one of these aircrafts were to crash in a populated area, the radiation fallout could have been disastrous.

    Another nuclear powered aircraft program was started by the Myasishchev Design Bureau in the summer of 1955. On May 19th, 1955; a resolution passed by SovMin ordering Myasishchev to commence development of a supersonic nuclear bomber. The bureau first design was code name M-60. The first draft of the project was finished on July 1956. At the same time, Lyulka’s new engine design that would comprise a nuclear/turbojet engine with the heat the reactor generates transferred through air to the jet, a power plant configuration known as an Open System; would give the M-60 49,600 lbs of thrust. The aircraft would take-off and land with a chemical mixture fuel as its propulsion. On reaching the desired operational altitude, the nuclear system would engage and provide the M-60 with its cruise speed. This engine configuration and thrust would have given the M-60 the ability to achieve Mach 2 speeds. Crew accommodations were to be housed in the center of the fuselage, again, in an all enclosed, lead shielding cabin. The cabin configuration would have curtailed visual observation. Consistent with other Soviet nuclear configurations, the reactor would be housed on the rear of the aircraft to offer further protection.

    The initial fuselage configuration called for a long, slim airplane with trapezoid wings and a trapezoid T-shaped tail. The nuclear/jet engines were to be placed side-by-side in the fuselage. The length of the M-60 was proposed at 169 ft, 3.5in; with a wing span of 86 ft, 11in. Sub sequential designs modifications of the M-60 had the aircraft fitted with four engines, mated as pairs at the rear of the airframe. As with the other nuclear programs, a tricycle undercarriage was selected for the M-60.

    image

    M-50 Bounder.

    Later, a swept wing variant of the M-60 design was introduced in December 1957— it called for the M-60 to be a delta winged design with both engines placed on under wing pylons and in tip nacelles which resemble the configuration of the M-50 Bounder. After extensive research, the Myasishchev bureau determined that with the correct nuclear power plants, a strategic bomber with a 1,989 mph speed, an operational range of 15,500 miles, and a service ceiling of 65,600 ft was achievable.

    The M-60 also did not make it out of the planning stage. After the cancellation of the M-60 program in 1959, the Myasishchev bureau put much of its research assets on the M-30 program, which started back in 1953; but by this time, SovMin interest on a nuclear powered aircraft was waning. Several other attempts were made to design an operational nuclear aircraft, chiefly the M-30, but also the M-62 program, ran similar along the lines of the M-60 The final blow to the nuclear powered aircraft program came in early 1961, when the Soviet leadership called for the abandoning of all related programs, thus ending one of the their most expensive and technically challenging programs ever. The end of the M-60 and the M-30 was also the end of Myasishchev’s affiliation with the design and production of heavy bombers.

    At the time of the cancellation of the program, the overall state of available technology, atomic science and aerodynamic designs, had progressed to the point that if the program had run its service course, it is very plausible that the Soviet Union would have reached its goal of deploying a nuclear powered bomber platform by the late 1970s. Instead, the flow of new aerodynamic information and designs, the vast amount of economic resources needed in the program, not only to develop a nuclear powered bomber, but to maintain it were cited as the reason for the cancellation. Also the emergence of a new Soviet doctrine that would rely heavily on the new submarine launched ICBM; with improve targeting mechanism, coupled with the sheer number of Land Based ICBMs that the Soviets were rapidly deploying, doomed the Soviet nuclear power bomber program. At around the same time the Soviets commenced its nuclear powered aircraft program, the other Cold War warrior, the United States, was already working at a fast pace to field its own nuclear bomber, but that story is for another time.

    Taken from http://www.aviation-history.com

    #395589

    Anonymous

    This is cool but i don't understand. If plane is nuclear powered those that mean it would burn out from exhaust system nuclear particles or something?

    #395590

    Anonymous
    #395591

    Anonymous

    This is merely a "myth" as it has never been proven, however I find it interesting nonetheless.

    It was the Soviet dictator's dream: Soldiers with no fear, with superhuman strength and endurance, who would follow any order, eat anything, and ignore pain or injury. Workers who could do the labor of ten men without complaint, with no thought of personal time off, and no desire for pay. A force to carry the Soviet Union through its Five-Year Plan for economic development, and to make the nation invincible in war. Stalin's goal, according to modern mythology, was no less than a slave race of scientifically bred beings that were half human and half ape; a race he hoped would combine tremendous physical strength, dumb loyalty, and a human's ability to follow direction and perform complex tasks. But how much of this is true, and how much of it is the invention of modern writers and filmmakers looking for the sensational story?

    It's no secret that a renowned Russian biologist, Il'ya Ivanovich Ivanov, spent much of his career working on just this. Around 1900 he gained great fame and national acclaim with his work on artificially inseminating horses, increasing the number of horses that could be bred by a factor of about twenty. For a preindustrialized nation, this was a tremendous economic accomplishment. Primarily funded by the Veterinary Department of the Russian Interior Ministry, Ivanov carried this technology to its next logical step, the creation of specialized hybrid animals for agricultural and industrial purposes, as well as for the sake of advancing the science. His artificial insemination experiments successfully crossed many closely related species: donkeys and zebras, mice and rats and other rodents, birds, and various species of cattle.

    As early as 1910, Ivanov lectured on the possibility of crossing humans and apes, citing artificial insemination as the method of choice due to prevailing ethical objections to, well, interspecies partying, for lack of a better term. However, before he could make any progress, Ivanov's work came to an abrupt halt in 1917 with the Russian Revolution, which effectively dissolved most existing government programs and eliminated all of his funding. The new Soviet government was committed to technical innovation and science, but it took seven long years for Ivanov to rebuild his network of support. Ivanov's entire career could be fairly characterized as a constant fundraising effort, desperately seeking resources for his hybridization dream and other projects, and failing nine times out of ten. He should have been so lucky as to have the government come to him with an offer, much less an order.

    Interestingly, many modern articles about Ivanov portray his work as a religiously motivated crusade. It's often said that the Russian and Soviet governments funded Ivanov not for any practical purpose, but merely out of atheist activism to prove evolutionary biology and to show that creationism has no place. Amid the developing nation's immense problems with famine and agricultural development, this would seem to be a bizarre reason to explore the capabilities of animal insemination. Nevertheless, there's an element of truth to it. In voicing support for Ivanov's 1924 grant proposal, the representative of the Commissariat of Agriculture said:

    "…The topic proposed by Professor Ivanov…should become a decisive blow to the religious teachings, and may be aptly used in our propaganda and in our struggle for the liberation of working people from the power of the Church."

    It's not clear whether this was the Commissariat's actual position or whether it was simply a sales tactic; either is plausible. Ivanov himself is not known to have ever expressed interest in this interpretation of his work; after all, he'd been studying reproduction as a scientist for almost 30 years, since long before the Soviet state existed.

    It took another year for this particular proposal to be funded. Apes were prohibitively expensive and rare in Russia, so Ivanov set off for Africa to set up a new lab. After some false starts, he finally launched his own facility in Guinea with chimpanzees netted for him by local hunters. Using sperm from an unidentified man, Ivanov made three artifical insemination attempts on his female chimps. Because Ivanov observed that the local Africans viewed chimps as inferior humans, and viewed humans who had had contact with chimps as tainted, he performed these inseminations in secret with only his son present as an assistant. Ivanov knew that a mere three attempts was inadequate to hope for any success, but the difficulties and expenses of maintaining and inseminating the chimps was too great. So he conceived a more sustainable experimental technique: Collecting the sperm of only two or three male apes, and then using that to artificially inseminate human women.

    He found no support for his plan in Africa — in large part because he had proposed to inseminate women in hospitals without their knowledge or consent — so he returned to the Soviet Union with his remaining chimps and founded a primate station in Sukhum (today called Sukhumi) on the Black Sea. Only one mature male survived, an orangutan named Tarzan. By 1929, the plan was to have five women be artificially inseminated, and then live at Ivanov's institute with a gynecologist for one full year. But just as the first woman volunteer was secured, known only to history as "G", Tarzan died. Ivanov ordered five male chimps, but just as they were delivered, his life suddenly turned in a new direction, driven by the constant turmoil of philosophies and favoritisms in the Soviet Union. Ivanov was accused of sabotaging the Soviet agricultural system and various political crimes, leading to his arrest a few months later. G never visited the Sukhum station, and no sperm was ever harvested from the new chimps. Ivanov died after two years of exile.

    Ivanov's primate station survived, however, and became his only real legacy. By the 1960's it had over two thousand apes and monkeys, and was employed by the Soviet and American space programs. But nobody ever followed his ape-human hybrid research there, though conventional artificial insemination was often employed among its primate population.

    So, does this history support or contradict the claim that Stalin wanted an ape-man hybrid race of slave super warriors? Well it certainly doesn't confirm it. Contrary to the modern version of the story, Stalin personally had no connection with Ivanov or his work, and probably didn't even know about it. No evidence has ever surfaced that Stalin or the Soviet government ever went out looking for someone to create an ape-man super soldier, though it's certainly possible that someone evaluating Ivanov's proposal may have made such an extrapolation.

    #395592

    Anonymous

    "Object 279" during trials. 1959-1960.
    In 1957, a group of engineers, headed by L.S.Troyanov, developed a prototype of a new heavy tank, named "Object 279". This was a very unique vehicle. The tank had a classic layout, but the problem of protection was solved by an unusual design feature. The hull of the tank was covered by a thin elliptical shield. That shield protected the tank against HEAT ammunition and to prevent it from overturning during a nuclear explosion.
    The thickness of the glacis plate was 269 mm, and the thickness of the turret was 305 mm. The tank was armed with a 130 mm M-65 gun and a coaxial 14.5 mm KPVT machine-gun. The ammunition carried for the main gun was 24 shells. The Engine was a 16-cylinder diesel DG-1000 (950 hp) or 2DG-8M (1000 hp). The tank's crew consisted of four men.

    The invention and building of heavy tanks was not a merit of USSR nor communism. Different projects existed in pre-revolutionary times of Russian Empire.  For example, the Tsar Tank of 1914:

    image

    The Tsar Tank (Russian: Царь-танк), also known as the Netopyr' (Нетопырь) which stands for pipistrellus (a bat, Летучая мышь) or Lebedenko Tank (танк Лебеденко), was an unusual Russian armoured vehicle developed by Nikolai Lebedenko (Николай Лебеденко), Nikolai Zhukovsky (Николай Жуковский), Boris Stechkin (Борис Стечкин), and Alexander Mikulin (Александр Микулин). The project was scrapped after initial tests deemed the vehicle to be underpowered and vulnerable to artillery fire.

    It differed from modern tanks in that it did not use caterpillar tracks—rather, it used a tricycle design. The two front spoked wheels were nearly 9 metres (27 feet) in diameter; the back wheel was smaller, only 1.5 metres (5 feet) high, triple wheel, to ensure maneuverability. The upper cannon turret reached nearly 8 metres high. The hull was 12 metres wide with two more cannons in the sponsons. Additional weapons were also planned under the belly. Each wheel was powered by a 250 hp (190 kW) Sunbeam engine.[1]

    The vehicle received its nickname because its model, when carried by the back wheel, resembled a bat hanging asleep.

    The huge wheels were intended to cross significant obstacles. However, due to miscalculations of the weight, the back wheel was prone to be stuck in soft ground and ditches, and the front wheels were sometimes insufficient to pull it out. This led to a fiasco of tests before the high commission in August 1915. The tank remained in the location where it was tested, some 60 kilometres from Moscow until 1923 when it was finally taken apart for scrap.

    Another wonderful project of old Russian engineers – the machine for the destruction of fortresses (1915). Huge armored ellipsoid having diameter of several hundred meters, which is moving at a speed of 500 km / h, would crush the enemy fortresses:

    image

    Also, the project of Emperial tank "Zemnoy bronenosets":

    [img width=700]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ru/6/68/%27Polevoy_Bronenosets%27_of_Porokhovchsikov.JPG” />

    Detailed list of pre-revolutionary Russian tanks you can see inWikipedia

    #395593

    Anonymous

    The old Soviet Union was devoted to science and research, for through them the regime hoped to find proofs for its militant anti-religious ideology. However, again and again, instead of confirming the old-fashioned atheism of the nineteenth century, its scientists and researchers came to the faith because of their twentieth-century research, proving what we have always believed, that (true) science merely confirms (true) faith.

    Thus, for example, some thirty years ago, when nobody talked of climate change, Soviet researchers discovered that with the passing of the years there is less and less oxygen in the atmosphere, far less than 100 years ago. In the 1980s one distinguished researcher suggested that, if there were no change in our polluting habits, by 2020 humanity would die of asphyxiation. Thus, instead of today’s average level of 20% of oxygen in the atmosphere, in some very polluted cities, levels are now as low as 12%, causing asphyxiation among children and the elderly through asthma and other respiratory diseases. When the oxygen level reaches about 8%, human life is no longer possible.

    Another Soviet scientist who investigated sub-atomic particles came to the following realization: all matter, it appeared to him, is made of positively-charged and negatively-charged particles, for example protons and neutrons. Understanding that +1 + -1 = 0, he came to the conclusion that the Biblical description of the creation of the universe ‘from nothing’ must therefore be true.

    Yet another story concerns tests for electromagnetism carried out on a reservoir of water, both before and after the water had been blessed by a priest. The result showed a far higher level of electromagnetism after the blessing of the waters. The test, which had been conducted in an attempt to show that the blessing of the waters had no effect, had exactly the opposite result and at least one scientist involved asked to be baptized as a result.

    The following story, which we have just translated from a Russian newspaper, of how, it seems, Soviet scientists, drilled down to hell, can be taken at face value, or denied. However, we invite our readers to investigate and reflect on it, looking further at the website linked to it. At the very least, any conscientious scientist would have to include that there is here a mystery that merits further research. In any case, symbolically, it would be no surprise to learn that the greatest ‘achievement’ of Soviet atheism was the discovery of hell.

    Scientists make sensational discoveries at the super-deep bore-hole in Kola

    In 2006 the Kola bore-hole project at the Zapolyarny Station near Murmansk in the Arctic celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary. Although a depth of 12 kilometres had been reached in 1983, it took ten years to drill another 262 metres, until in 1995 the project was frozen. Scientists had already discovered dozens of fossilized micro-organisms at a great depth, then at a depth of four kilometres, they realized that all the textbook predictions were wrong. There was no basalt, but a great deal of granite and everything was far hotter than predicted. At a depth of ten kilometres, scientists discovered fantastic deposits of gold and diamonds. The temperature at a depth of twelve kilometres was far hotter than predicted, 220 degrees Celsius, and there was a great amount of radiation, which destroyed dozens of titanium drills. Today just five scientists live at the research station in Kola, the deepest hole in the planet, examining the substances that they have brought up from the depths of the earth.

    Virtually all projects around the world to drill into the earth stopped after reaching a depth of three kilometres. Some 600 attempts were made by the Americans, the Germans and the Japanese, but as soon as they had reached ‘the cursed depth’, strange things began to happen. Sometimes the drills mysteriously burned up, sometimes they were pulled down by invisible forces and disappeared. Worldwide, only five holes were drilled deeper than three kilometres, four of these were Soviet. Of the holes, all bored in areas of oil and gas deposits, only the Kola hole went deeper than seven kilometres. At that depth it took seventy hours to bring up samples of material from the earth. Data about the temperature, radiation and noise took one minute to reach the surface.

    On top of this, many strange incidents occurred as soon as the Kola super-deep bore hole had reached a depth of ten kilometres. On two occasions the drill tips melted, despite the fact that the temperature at which titanium tips should melt is approximately that of the surface of the Sun. Several times the drill seemed to be dragged down and broken off, the drill tips never being found. And these were only some of the inexplicable incidents. Notably, in 1994, when they were about to cover the bore-hole which had reached a depth of thirteen kilometres, a strange noise emerged from the depths of the planet. Those who heard it unanimously asserted that the noise could only be that of ‘the cries of sinners in the pit of hell’. Then a huge and inexplicable explosion was heard and a story spread about a demon who had appeared from the depths of the Earth.

    The project was frozen in 1995 when drillers refused to work any longer, because ‘demons were crawling up out of the earth’. Terrified drillers say that the sounds coming up to the surface from that depth resembled screaming and screeching. In the spring of this year, scientists from the Institute of Geophysics went to Kola and made another astonishing discovery: at a depth of three kilometres the sounds of human activity could be heard below. Sounds from the surface are so loud that they drown out the geoacoustic noise at that depth. In other words, those who live in hell know exactly what is going on among humans on the surface of the planet.

    Translated by Fr Andrew

    Abridged from They have dug down to the devils in the secular weekly Argumenty Nedeli (circulation 570,000), No 34 (60) 26 July – 1 August 2007.

    Further information, not verified by the translator, is available at the website: http://amightywind.com/hell/aboutsounds.htm

    Source: http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/demonsscr.htm

    #395594

    Anonymous
    Quote:

    Yeah this craft is cool i watched documentary about it. Its really amazing stuff. :)

    Quote:

    This one is interesting i didn't know about it. Turret is kinda similar to T-54/55. :D

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