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  • #344024

    Anonymous

    Reconstructed Slavic pagan temple in Gross Raden, Mecklenburg, Western Pomerania.

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    There was very little known about Slavs and their culture who lived in present day Mecklenburg, Western Pomerania until the end of the World War 2. During 2nd and 3rd Reich, for political reasons, archaeological artefacts found in these areas were attributed to 'German Vikings' instead of the confederation of western Slavic tribes known as Obodrites.

    The landmarks such as ramparts of Mecklenburg, Dobin, Ilow, Quetzin, Teterow, Werle and others from the period during which the region was populated by Slavic tribes were also attributed to 'German Vikings'.

    After World War II much was done to restore historical justice by historians, archeologists and scientists of German Democratic Republic. In particular, by Professor Ewald Shuldt  whose ancestors were from Mecklenburg land. Since his appointment as the director of the prehistoric department of Historical Museum of Schweriner in 1953, he devoted his life to the study of Slavic settlements around the cities of Schwerin (Slavic: Zverin) – Rostock and Neubrandenburg.
    Professor Ewald Shuldt studied the ramparts on the island of the lake "Teterower" between 1950 and 1953, castles near the town if Lübchin (Lyubchin)  from 1956 to 1961,  the castle near Sukow (Sukov) in 1962 and  castles near villages Nieköhr Walken (Valcke) located near the town of Teterow  from 1963 to 1964. Ewald Shuldt also excavated the rampart inside of Obortides’ castle Liepen (Lipen) located near the city of Rostock.

    Professor Ewald Shuldt: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewald_Schuldt .

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    The extensive research on the site of Obodrites’ settlement in Gross Raden began in 1973. The excavations continued untill early 80s during which a large number of Slavic archaeological artefacts were discovered. The archaeologists also discovered Slavic pagan temple on the site. The results of these excavations allowed Professor Shultd to release a monograph on the culture of Bodrichi (Slavic tribe) as well as the construction of pagan temple.
    Some ross-reference of published literature by Ewald Schuldt is provided in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewald_Schuldt

    The plans of the castle in Gross-Raden.

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    The castle from a distance

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    Prior to 1987, the year in which  Ewald Schultd died, the state government of Mecklenburg began the construction of the  museum of ancient Slavic settlement according to the materials discovered during excavations.

    Slavic Temple in Gross-Raden

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    Rampart

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    Residential area

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    Walls

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    Idol

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    Temple

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    Sources:
    The official website of the museum in German:  http://www.freilichtmuseum-gross-raden.de/
    Unofficial source in Russian: http://www.perunica.ru/germany/1076-slavyanskij-xram-v-gross-radengross-raden.html

    #395569

    Anonymous

    Good thread. However how a hell they could reconstruct that temple?

    #395570

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Good thread. However how a hell they could reconstruct that temple?

    From what I gathered from the unofficial Russian source, Professor Shultd discovered Slavic pagan temple during archeological excavations carried out between 1973-1980. According to the materials and the design of the temple discovered, the state reconstructed Slavic  temple.

    #395571

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    From what I gathered from the unofficial Russian source, Professor Shultd discovered Slavic pagan temple during archeological excavations carried out between 1973-1980. According to the materials and the design of the temple discovered, the state reconstructed Slavic  temple.

    What puzzles me the most is how wooden temple and other buildings from early middle ages can end up under earth. :D

    #395572

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    What puzzles me the most is how wooden temple and other buildings from early middle ages can end up under earth. :D

    That’s something needs be looked in the original sources published by Professor Schuldt. I suspect there are many inaccuracies in reconstructions There have to be. It is still good have the open-air museum supported by the government. :)

    #395573

    Anonymous

    One element of a wooden house in the traditional Russian architecture is the so-called 'ohlupen' (охлупень). Thе timber that covers the top joint of the roof slopes. The 'ohlupen' in wooden architecture was always interpreted as a dominant part of dwelling or the head of the house. The 'ohlupen' was often called as knyaz/knez/knyazok etc.

    Ethnographers have noted that in the sculptural decoration of traditional house, the 'ohlupen' appears to be one of the most archaic elements in Russian architecture. In villages of northern Russia the 'ochlupen' was subject of pride and competitions.

    Similar decorative figures of various animals and mythological creatures are common to many European cultures. However, it is important to note that the decoration of the roof have regional characteristics specific to different ethnical groups.
    In Russian architecture the 'ohlupen' is made in the form of horse and its most common name is 'konek' (small horse)

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    The two-headed horses facing each other looking in opposite directions are also common in Russian wooden architecture.

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    Generally speaking the Russian wooden architecture characterized by the use of horses in the design of the upper part of the house.

    It is interesting to note that analogous tradition in wooden architecture exists in present day Mecklenburg (west Pomerania), Lower Saxony (former Wendland) and Schleswig-Holstein [1]

    Mecklenburg, Germany

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    Mecklenburg, Germany

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    Lower Saxony

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    Mecklenburg

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    Village Elden, Germany (1840)

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    Old house in Mecklenburg (1711)

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    Another analogous tradition exists in eastern Germany’similar to that found in Russia is the image of a white horse used in folk costumes during Christmas/winter celebrations. [2] In Russia the celebration is known as Svyatki.

    Unofficial source: http://alatyr.org/content/kult-konya-v-derevyannom-zodchestve-rusi-i-severnoj-germanii

    1.Ю.В.Иванова-Бучатская. Plattes Land: Символы Северной Германии (славяно-германский этнокультурный синтез в междуречьи Эльбы и Одера). СПб, 2006. С.114.
    2.2. Там же, с.115.

    #395574

    Anonymous

    Arkona, Rugen island (Rujan in Slavic means the red island)

    Cape Arkona (German: Kap Arkona) is a cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Cape Arkona is the tip of the Wittow peninsula, just a few kilometres north of the Jasmund National Park.

    The temple fortress of Arkona, today called Jaromarsburg, was the religious centre of the Slavic Rani in the Early Middle Ages. The temple was dedicated to the deity Sviatovid, who was depicted with four heads. The temple housed an important horse oracle in Slavic times, where the behaviour of a white stallion could decide peace or war (horse oracles have a long history in this region, being already attested in the writings of Tacitus).

    Today, only about a quarter of the old fortress is left, as the chalk-promontory it was built on is slowly eroded by the Baltic. Rescue excavations are in progress.

    The fortress at Arkona was destroyed in 1168 by Danish invaders. The sanctuary of Slavic deity Sviatovid was also destroyed. This event preceded the forced Christianisation of the region.

    Source: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Cape_Arkona.html

    Runi – Slavic tribe lived in Rugen

    The Rani or Rujani (German: Ranen, Rujanen) were a West Slavic tribe based on the island of Rugia (Rügen) and the southwestern mainland across the Strelasund in what is today northeastern Germany.
    The Rani tribe emerged after the Slavic settlement of the region in the 9th century,ranging among the most powerful of several small Slav tribes dwelling between the Elbe and lower Vistula rivers before the 13th century. They were one of the last to cling to their Slavic paganism, with the influence of their religious center at Arkona reaching far beyond the tribal borders. In 1168, the Rani were defeated by the Danish Empire, resulting in the conversion of the region to Christianity. In the course of the 13th century in Pomerania, the tribe was assimilated by German and Danish settlers during the Ostsiedlung, resulting in a gradual Germanisation of the Rani. The Principality of Rugia remained Danish until 1325

    Relegion:

    The Rani believed in multiple gods, all of which had several faces and were worshipped as tall wooden statues in their respective temples. They were worshipped in temples, holy groves, at home and in ritual meals. The mightiest among their gods was Sviatovid, a four-headed god having his temple at Cape Arkona in the northernmost part of his isle of Wittow. This temple was worshipped and collected tributes not only from the Rani, but from all Baltic Wends after Rethra, which previously had been the main Wendish religious centre, was destroyed in a German raid in 1068/9.
    Other gods were Tjarnaglofi with his temple on Jasmund near today's Sagard, further there were Rugievit, Porevit and Porenut with temples in the capitol, Charenza, and other gods with temples all over the Rani realm. After the forced Christianization, monasteries and churches replaced the temples. In the church of Altenkirchen, a large stone from Arkona was used with a relief showing a Sviatovid priest.

    List of Rulers

    Reported names of Rani tribal leaders ("kings" or "princes") were:
    c. 955 Vitzlav
    c. 1066 Kruto (Krito)
    c. 1100 Grines (Grimmus)
    c. 1138 Ratislaus (Ratislaw, Ratze)
    1164 Tetzlav (became Danish Prince of Rugia in 1168)

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rani_(Slavic_tribe)

    Major Rani temples. All were torn down soon after the Danish victory in the 1168 Arkona battle. The adjacent temples indicated in green were destroyed by Otto von Bamberg in 1128 after Pomeranian duke Wartislaw I subdued the Gützkow and Wolgast area. The monasteries shown on the map were all set up by Rani dukes after their conversion to support Christianisation of the Rani and massive German settlement.

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    Bishop Absalon topples the god Sviatovid t at Arkona. Painting by Laurits Tuxen.

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    Slavic Idol was found in Zbruch River, western Ukraine dated to 9th century. The idol is commonly associated with the Slavic deity Sviatovid, which is now on display in the archaeological museum in Kraków, Poland with exact copies located in other museums.

    [img width=476 height=700]http://s9.postimage.org/v7uulxi0f/Swietowit.jpg” />

    Reconstructed statue of Sviatovid in Arkona.

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    #395575

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    The two-headed horses facing each other looking in opposite directions are also common in Russian wooden architecture.

    Generally speaking the Russian wooden architecture characterized by the use of horses in the design of the upper part of the house.

    It is interesting to note that analogous tradition in wooden architecture exists in present day Mecklenburg (west Pomerania), Lower Saxony (former Wendland) and Schleswig-Holstein [1]

    In this case its rather debatable. Such horses are widespread in traditional German houses even outside ex-Slavic settlement. However i can't exclude possibility that Slavs influenced Germans through trade or even vice versa. Anyway as far as traditional architecture goes i must also point out that vast majority of traditional houses in the north of east Germany excibit timber framing which was hardly traditional among Slavs who are prone to log framing. On the other hand south parts of east Germany excibit blend of log and timber framing. That style was typical throught much of Saxony and Silesia.

    #395576

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    In this case its rather debatable. Such horses are widespread in traditional German houses even outside ex-Slavic settlement. However i can't exclude possibility that Slavs influenced Germans through trade or even vice versa. Anyway as far as traditional architecture goes i must also point out that vast majority of traditional houses in the north of east Germany excibit timber framing which was hardly traditional among Slavs who are prone to log framing. On the other hand south parts of east Germany excibit blend of log and timber framing. That style was typical throught much of Saxony and Silesia.

    There are new studies coming through suggesting some Baltic Slavs may had migrated to northern Russia or had very close contacts. I think this is one of the reasons why some people are searching for similarities between Baltic Slavs and Slavs of north-western Russia.  The cult of horses may be just a coincidence.

    Here is a copy of disseration of Anna Molchanova on Baltic Slavs and Slavs in north-west of Russia (2008) : http://rodnovery.ucoz.lv/forum/16-42-1

    #395577

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    There are new studies coming through suggesting some Baltic Slavs may had migrated to northern Russia or had very close contacts. I think this is one of the reasons why some people are searching for similarities between Baltic Slavs and Slavs of north-western Russia.  The cult of horses may be just a coincidence.

    Here is a copy of disseration of Anna Molchanova on Baltic Slavs and Slavs in north-west of Russia (2008) : http://rodnovery.ucoz.lv/forum/16-42-1

    Great. I think it is highly possible that this horse cult presisted in some regions longer than in others. This is becouse "horse cult" played important role among early Indo-europeans. Anyway Rani even had special white horse in their temple as i recall. For example this is interesting, altho from wiki it must have some truth in it; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_sacrifice

    #395578

    Anonymous
    #395579

    Anonymous

    Hello friends. Maybe you will be interested about pics from our trip in Germany and Polad in oktober 2012, whre we have wisited most interesting places related to slavic history of region of northeast Germany and western Poland. We have wisited places: Gross Raden, Arkona, Wolin, Raduš. Realy fantastic trip, might it be inspiration for all of you who not been yet there.

    Gross Raden:

    http://www.hradiska.sk/search/label/V%C3%BDprava%20Arkona%202012%20-%20De%C5%88%20prv%C3%BD%20Gross%20Raden

    Arkona

    http://www.hradiska.sk/search/label/V%C3%BDprava%20Arkona%202012%20-%20De%C5%88%20druh%C3%BD%20-%20Mys%20Arkona

    Wolin

    http://www.hradiska.sk/search/label/V%C3%BDprava%20Arkona%202012%20-%20De%C5%88%20tret%C3%AD%20-%20Wollin

    Raduš

    http://www.hradiska.sk/search/label/V%C3%BDprava%20Arkona%202012%20-%20De%C5%88%20tret%C3%AD%20-%20Radu%C5%A1

    By the way, fantastic page about slavic settlement in Germany is here: http://slawenburgen.npage.de/

    #395580

    Anonymous

    Reconstruction of ancient Slavic boat in Rugen.

    A significant archaeological discovery was made in the village of Ralswiek on the legendary island of Rügen in 1967. During roadworks an excavator dug out several oak planks from the ground.  The road workers took their finding to a team of archaeologists working nearby and those soon began archaeological excavations during which four ancient Slavic ships and a trading settlement was uncovered. The settlement was one of the most important ports on the Baltic coast existed the 8th century. It was proposed that Rujani (an early Slavic tribe) harboured their fleet in the place of archealogical discovery because it is located in the Bay area protected from sea storms. The village of Ralswiek was destroyed by the enemies, most likely by Danes. This is evidenced by the traces of fire and hidden treasure of 2,203 Arab dichroism.

    The archaeological excavation of the ships was not easy. Excacavated ships had to be buried in the ground because there were no funds allocated by the state for ships' preservation. The ships were dug out for second time in 1980 to be shown to an international conference. The ships had to be buried in the ground once again as no money was provided by the state to preserve the ships.  It was only in 1993 the state provided the funds for archaeological excavations and preservation of ships. The ships were dug out for third time, adequately preserved and a team of ship builders was appointed for ship reconstruction to go ahead.

    Archeologists estimated that the ships were built in 977 from wood grown in Rugen or Pomorze. The use of wooden dowels showed that the builders of the ship were Slavs. Vikings used metal nails during those times.

    The seaside view from a place in which Rujani fleet stood. Today, the place is used for annual performances during which a tale about famous pirate Störtebeker is being told.

    [IMG]http://img29.imageshack.us/img29/2567/84260640.jpg” />

    In 1999, the archaeological community of Mecklenburg released a small but well illustrated booklet describing the history of reconstruction. Two identical Slavic boats were reconstructed one of which can now be seen in Gross Raden. The next photos are from aforementioned booklet.

    Excavations underway in 1993

    [IMG=http://img802.imageshack.us/img802/6638/75410640.jpg]http://” />

    The diagram of dug out items

    [IMG]http://img5.imageshack.us/img5/8342/75713640.jpg” />

    The reconstructors started the project. First, copies of excavated items were cut out from cardboard.

    [IMG]http://img22.imageshack.us/img22/948/75992640.jpg” />

    Then, a drawing for the reconstruction was made.

    [IMG]http://img163.imageshack.us/img163/5410/84684640.jpg” />

    Oak from Gross Raden was chosen to construct the boats.

    [IMG]http://img809.imageshack.us/img809/7239/76095640.jpg” />

    To aid in the reconstruction a Danish specialist, Hanus Jensen, was invited. He already had experience in the reconstruction of Viking ship Gedesbi.

    PS Much of the reconstruction was done using technology and instrument that existed in medieval times.

    [IMG]http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/4561/76429640.jpg” />

    First, the trunk of the tree needed to be split in two halves.

    [IMG]http://img40.imageshack.us/img40/5324/76569640.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img687.imageshack.us/img687/7426/77007640.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img705.imageshack.us/img705/5370/78248482.jpg” />

    Instruments used

    [IMG]http://img831.imageshack.us/img831/7113/43405115.jpg” />

    The trunk of tree needed to be sliced.

    [IMG]http://img802.imageshack.us/img802/2/79956395.jpg” />

    Using an axe to obtain the desired thickness

    [IMG=http://img534.imageshack.us/img534/7108/84872588.jpg]http://” />

    [IMG]http://img211.imageshack.us/img211/130/27084742.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img208.imageshack.us/img208/963/50422339.jpg” />

    Planks for the boats. Three oaks trunks were used. It’s difficult to imagine how much labour work was put into it using simple instruments.

    [IMG]http://img525.imageshack.us/img525/9426/41369880.jpg” />

    Blanks for the risers.

    [IMG]http://img802.imageshack.us/img802/4033/42197814.jpg” />

    The planks were soaked in water.

    [IMG]http://img87.imageshack.us/img87/5338/57104784.jpg” />

    The reconstruction of boats was carried out on the site of Gross Raden fortress

    [IMG]http://img707.imageshack.us/img707/8914/87884882.jpg” />

    Processing of the riser.

    [IMG]http://img163.imageshack.us/img163/8502/90849221.jpg” />

    Instruments reconstructors used.

    [IMG]http://img845.imageshack.us/img845/9851/76447886.jpg” />

    Two versions of risers as two boats were reconstructed

    1.
    [IMG]http://img189.imageshack.us/img189/1228/31158737.jpg” />

    2.
    [IMG]http://img713.imageshack.us/img713/6696/13752481.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img687.imageshack.us/img687/5657/93265709.jpg” />

    The planks were warmed using heat coal to get them in a bended form.

    [IMG]http://img690.imageshack.us/img690/6175/69536303.jpg” />

    The planks were dressed using a plane.

    [IMG]http://img43.imageshack.us/img43/4096/36999344.jpg” />

    A mixture of human, sheep and dog hair was soaked in resin to fill spaces between the planks for water resistance.

    [IMG]http://img442.imageshack.us/img442/407/48703971.jpg” />

    The boat was covered with resin

    [IMG]http://img688.imageshack.us/img688/1479/64058433.jpg” />

    Making of wooden dowels.

    [IMG]http://img51.imageshack.us/img51/9642/69892749.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img339.imageshack.us/img339/5153/17147750.jpg” />

    Work in progress

    [IMG]http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/2963/62627907.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/1894/40686188.jpg” />

    1. The boat was launched in the water in Gross Raden. The ship was named "BIALY KON" (white horse)
    2. Ancor
    3. Transfer of ballast stone by Viking reconstructors from Roskilde.

    [IMG]http://img832.imageshack.us/img832/5656/23966458.jpg” />

    On one of the reconstructed boat a trip was made from Ralswiek on Rugen to Wolin with stoppages in trading centres. This route was used in medieval times.

    [IMG]http://img818.imageshack.us/img818/1830/12007053.jpg” />

    [IMG]http://img525.imageshack.us/img525/1110/22846980.jpg” />

    To Wolin!

    [IMG]http://img13.imageshack.us/img13/9087/47802378.jpg” />

    The other reconstructed Slavic boat is located in Gross Raden today.

    [IMG]http://img687.imageshack.us/img687/6581/20931914.jpg” />

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