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    [size=12pt]THE SLOVAKS AND THE CZECHS[/size]



    Published by the SLOVAK LEAGUE OF AMERICA

    May 1954

    The Slovaks and The Czechs

    The Slovaks are not Czechs, and the Czechs are not Slovaks. The Czechs do not want to be Slovaks, and the Slovaks do not want to be Czechs. This simple truth has been recognized by the Czechs and Slovaks themselves for many centuries past and should be recognized by all the nations of the world.

    The Slovaks and the Czechs are two distinct ethnic units. The Slovaks never were, nor are they now, a part of the Czech nation. Ethnically, there never was a "Czecho-Slovak" or a "Czechoslovak" nation. The term "Czechoslovak" was invented by imperialist Czech leaders in the twentieth century to deceive the world. The Czechs and the Slovaks did not have a common history, language, culture and tradition, and they did not inhabit the same territory in Central Europe.

    The Slovaks, as a nation, are no more Czech than the Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs and Bulgarians. There are no Czechopoles, Czechoserbians, Czechogermans, Polorussians, Czechocroatians, etc. And, by the same token, there are no "Czechoslovaks" or "Slovakoczechs.'' The Slovaks resent being called "Czechoslovaks".

    The Slovak nation is one of the most ancient nations of Central Europe. History and archeology tell us that the forefathers of the Slovak people inhabited Slovakia since about the fifth century.

    The political state known as Czecho-Slovakia came into being after World War I with the defeat of Germany and her allies, including Austria-Hungary. The Slovaks agreed to a common democratic state with the Czechs only on certain conditions, the most important of which was that the Slovak nation would be an autonomous unit of the Czecho-Slovak Republic, which was to be set up as a federation (after the pattern of the United States, or Switzerland). Czecho-Slovakia, however, under Masaryk and Benes did not become a democracy, but a pseudo-democracy in which the Czechs were the "State-nation" and the Slovaks a national minority.

    The Slovaks were among the first nations in Central Europe that established an independent state, or a political form that had the semblance of an independent state. After the Slovaks rebelled successfully against the Avars and became free, they later elected Samo, the Frankish merchant, their king, who ruled the territory of the Slovaks from 624—659 (Wogastisburg, the seat of Samo, was probably around or in today's Bratislava).

    The Slovaks successfully established an independent state the second time when they established the Great Moravian Empire in the ninth century. The territory of Slovakia, ruled by King Rastislav and Svätopluk, formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire.

    The Slovaks already were Christians in the second half of the eighth century, Pribina, a Slovak prince, built the first Christian church, the church of St. Emeram, in Nitra, Slovakia, in 830 A,D. The vast majority of the Slovak nation is still loyal to the Roman Catholic Church (about 85 percent of the total 98 percent Christian population).

    Bohemia, the land of the Boii which was partly settled by the forefathers of the Czechs, existed at the same time that the great Moravian Empire did. The Czechs, in fact, helped to destroy the Great Moravian Empire which was established by the Slovaks. After the collapse of the Empire, early in the tenth century, the Slovaks came under the hegemony of the Franks and, later, about the end of the tenth century, under that of Hungary, From that time on to 1918, the Slovaks were under the domination of Hungary, while the Czechs, inhabiting the Bohemian Crown Lands, were dominated by the Germans (Austria).

    Czecho-Slovakia would never have come into being without the Slovaks. T. G. Masaryk, one of the founders of Czecho-Slovakia, was perfectly aware of that, as he was of the fact that it would not become a reality if Americans of Slovak descent set themselves against its establishment. The Slovaks of America would not go along with Masaryk and his Czecho-Slovakia, until he drafted and signed the Pittsburgh Pact. May 30, 1918, which guaranteed the Slovak nation complete autonomy (States' Rights) within the framework of the federated Czecho-Slovak Republic. The founders of the Czecho-Slovak Republic were:

    General Milan R. Stefanik, T, G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes.

    Milan Rastislav Štefánik, a Slovak

    Tomáš G. Masaryk, half Slovak half German, but a Czech in heart

    Edvard Beneš, a Czech

    Stefanik was a French citizen of Slovak descent at the time Czecho-Slovakia was founded; Masaryk and Benes were Austrian citizens. The independence of Czecho-Slovakia was declared at Prague on October 28, 1918. General Stefanik, flying home from Italy to take over the Ministry of Defense of the new Republic, was killed in the crash of the plane which was shot down May 4, 1919, by a Czech garrison at Vajnory, Slovakia.

    T. G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes then repudiated the Pittsburgh Pact of May 30, 1918, and Slovakia in fact became a colony of the Czechs. They made it quite evident that as far as they were concerned the Slovak nation did not exist. Masaryk and Benes, once in power, regarded the Slovak nation as a branch of the Czech nation, and the Slovak language as a dialect of the Czech language; they repudiated the American principle of self-determination for all nations to which they had previously subscribed.

    The Czecho-Slovak State was a polyglot State, a multinational State, ruled and exploited by the Czechs to promote their own national interests at the expense of the other peoples of Czecho-Slovakia. In reality, Czecho-Slovakia was only a smaller but worse copy of old Austria-Hungary in which the Germans exploited the Czechs and the Magyars exploited the Slovaks.

    Čechy, Morava a Sliezsko, Slovensko, Podkarpatská Rus

    Official propaganda of all Czech governments from 1918 to 1938 (the era of T. G. Masaryk and Edward Benes) stated categorically that the Slovaks and the Czechs were "two very closely related" nations. We say "Czech" governments, because the Slovaks had little or no influence in them ; the will of the Slovak nation was totally ignored when it came to policy and national and international relationships. The "Czecho-Slovak" (with or without the hyphen) administrations during that time were in reality Czech administrations; ''Czecho-Slovak" government was in fact a Czech government; even the national "Czechoslovak" church was strictly a Czech enterprise.

    Masaryk and Benes did not recognize the national rights and just demands of the Slovak nation, nor did they respect its national and religious traditions — this despite the fact that the establishment of the Czecho-Slovak Republic rested on the democratic principle of self-determination.

    T, G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes were never actually concerned with the interests of the Slovak people, nor did they actually ever represent them, even though they claimed they did on many occasions. Czech imperialists under Masaryk and Benes always nourished the idea that the Slovaks would eventually disappear from the face of the earth by being absorbed by the more numerical
    Czechs but they were badly mistaken. The more Prague treated the Slovaks as second-rate citizens, the more the Slovaks were determined to realize their natural rights to save  their national existence.

    T. G, Masaryk, the so-called "founder" of the Czecho-Slovak Republic, deceived President Woodrow Wilson in 1918, just as he had deceived the Slovaks that same year with his "Pittsburgh Pact" which guaranteed what amounts to States' Rights to Slovakia.

    Dr. Edward Benes, the so-called ''builder" of the Czecho-Slovak Republic and leader of the Czech National Socialists, lied to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other prominent political personalities during World War II when he told them that the Slovaks did not want to continue their independent State of Slovakia, but preferred to remain subservient to the Czechs in a "renewed" Czecho-Slovakia.

    T. G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes and the governments of Czecho-Slovakia used the funds and the propaganda apparatus of the Czecho-Slovak State to minimize, misrepresent and vilify the Slovak nation and its political and religious leaders. Volumes have been written by Masaryk, Benes and many foreign and domestic writers and historians to glorify Masaryk and Benes, but little or nothing
    has been written by them about Slovakia's great patriot, General Milan R. Stefanik, without whom the Czecho-Slovak Republic would not have become a reality in 1918.

    It was Stefanik who introduced Masaryk and Benes to the highest political and diplomatic circles in Prance; and it was Stefanik who organized the Czecho-Slovak Legionaries in foreign lands, including America.

    The world has heard and read about the "great economic, social and political achievements" of Czecho-Slovakia done by Masaryk and Benes, but it has not heard the other side of that story from representatives of the nations which were oppressed and persecuted by the pseudo-democratic Prague governments under Masaryk and Benes.

    The Slovaks and the Czechs were supposed to be equal partners in the Czecho-Slovak Republic: Masaryk said on various occasions, before the Slovaks had decided to go along with the Czechs to establish a common political state, that the Slovaks would be the masters of their own household (Slovakia) and the Czechs masters of their territory (Czechia). But the Slovaks actually did not rule in Slovakia; they were ruled by the Czechs from Prague.

    The Czecho-Slovak Constitution of February 29, 1920, was strictly a Czech product. The Czechs under Masaryk and Benes simply dictated and forced it upon the majority of the non-Czech population of the new State. The so-called Constitutional National Assembly was handpicked by Masaryk and Benes; it was composed of 204 Czechs and 56 Slovaks, and the latter figure included five Czechs: Edward Benes, Alice Masaryk, Joseph Rotnagl, Aloys Kolisetk and Joseph Zaruba-Pfeffermann. After the Constitution was
    drafted, it was accepted by these handpicked deputies and not by duly elected representatives of the people of Checho-Slovakia. This undemocratic Constitution guaranteed Czech hegemony in the Republic for all time; the Prague government would allow no amendments.

    T. G. Masaryk and Dr. Edward Benes always sought and found some Slovak Judases, who represented a minority of the Slovak nation (15-20 percent), who were willing to serve Czech national interests, for pay and to betray the national interests of the Slovak people. These Slovak renegades and traitors — the "Czech" Slovaks (Czechoslovaks) — were used by Masaryk and Benes and the
    Czech socialists as window dressing to show the world that the Slovaks were "really" represented in practically all branches and agencies of the government.

    Patriotic Slovaks regard Ivan Derer, Juraj Slavik, Milan Hodza, Jan Papanek, Fedor Hodza, Vavro Srobar, Joseph Lettrich and Dr. Stephen Osusky as the leading "Czech" Slovaks (Czechoslovaks), that is Slovak renegades and Judases.

    The Slovak opposition, having over a half-million voters, was oppressed. Public assemblies could not be held without the Government's permission; when they were allowed, it was under special police supervision. Periodicals of the opposition were confiscated and censored regularly; in 1922 alone there were 1498 confiscations of various editions of Slovak papers by the Czech censor; deletion of words, sentences, paragraphs and whole articles were more numerous. The leaders of the opposition were often fined heavily and jailed; the demand of the Slovaks for States' Rights (autonomy) with the framework of Czecho-Slovakia was condemned as rebellion and treason by the Prague Government. This anti-Slovak and undemocratic policy ("Czecho-Slovak" democracy!) of Masaryk and Benes and their political followers contributed more than anything else to the utter collapse of Czecho-Slovakia in 1938.

    Czecho-Slovakia collapsed without offering the slightest resistance, even without firing a shot or blowing up the Skoda Works, because the majority of her citizens was in opposition to the State. Dr. Edward Benes was well aware of that fact. Masaryk and Benes had the opportunity twenty years, in fact — to consolidate the State, to satisfy the just demands of the various nations of Czecho-Slovakia and to create a real democratic federation, but did not do so. The Magyars of Hungary used to accuse the Slovaks
    of being Slavophiles and, therefore, anti-State. Masaryk and Benes, following the example of the Magyars, accused the Slovaks of being Magyarones and, therefore, anti-State, or guilty of ''treason." For twenty years the Slovaks lived in a state of ''treason," because they insisted on the realization of their inherent rights as a nation and demanded States' Rights for Slovakia within the framework of Czecho-Slovakia, Of course, such a situation was impossible and untenable, but the governments under Masaryk and Benes held to it stubbornly to the detriment and ruin of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia.

    The more the Prague governments under Masaryk and Benes exploited Slovakia for the benefit of the Czech nation, the more the Slovaks tried to get the freedom. Finally, the Slovaks proclaimed their own independent Slovak Republic on March 14, 1939.

    Dr, Edward Benes, leader of the Czech National Socialists, must be held responsible for Czecho-Slovakia's foreign policy, because he was in fact foreign policy itself. His collaboration with the Soviet Union and communists began not in 1943, but shortly after the conclusion of World War I. This he openly admitted in his speeches and writings. So did other Czech socialists. This pro-Soviet
    policy of Dr. Edward Benes and the Czech socialists prepared the way for February 25, 1948, when the Czech communists took over the government of Czecho-Slovakia.

    During World War 11, Dr. Edward Benes said that "true" democracy emanated from Soviet Russia. He also convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Stalin was not a bad fellow, but a "regular Joe" at heart, interested only in promoting true democracy in Soviet Russia.

    Dr. Edward Benes and the Czech Socialists betrayed Czecho-Slovakia to totalitarian powers twice within one decade: to Hitler in 1938, and to Stalin's Soviet Russia in 1943. He capitulated to Hitler's Munich without the approval of parliament. He betrayed his country when he resigned the presidency of Czecho-Slovakia on October 5, 1938 and cowardly fled to London during the worst crisis in Czecho-Slovakia's history.

    After fleeing to London, Dr. Benes sent his blessings and congratulations to his legally elected successor Dr Emil Hacha.

    When war broke out some eleven months later, Dr. Benes formed a committee of exiles, including communists, which was soon recognized by Britain and France as qualified to speak for Czecho-Slovakia, that is for the Czechs and Slovaks. The United States soon followed suit. Later this committee, handpicked by Benes, was recognized as the "Czecho-Slovak Govemment-in-exile," and the men selected and paid by Benes declared that he was still president of Czecho-Slovakia. Moreover, collaboration with the Soviet Union was full and friendly.

    On December 12, 1943, Dr. Benes and his London government concluded a "Treaty of friendship, mutual assistance and post-war cooperation" with the Soviet Union at Moscow. By this act Czecho-Slovakia, which did not exist de facto at that time, was formally sold out to the men of the Kremlin. Without this treaty, the Czechs under Benes never would have been able to re-establish their rule over the non-Czech majority of Slovaks, Germans, Poles, Magyars and Ruthenians. It was thus that Dr. Benes was able to
    return to Czecho-Slovakia as "president" in 1945 behind the Red Army.

    Dr. Edward Benes and the Czech socialists collaborated fully with the Soviet Union and the native communists. The independent Republic of Slovakia was wantonly destroyed against the will of the Slovak nation. The Slovaks protested and stubbornly resisted Red rule, but to no avail. Stalin's stooge. Dr. Edward Benes, was in the driver's seat and all anti-communist opposition was soon, swept away. The Benes socialists ruled the Czecho-Slovak roost with the Stalin communists.

    Dr. Edward Benes and his communist-dominated ''National Front'' government imprisoned over 130,000 Slovaks, murdered hundreds, and deported tens of thousands to Soviet Russia and the "Bohemian Crown Lands," because they were opposed to Communism and Socialism and wanted a free and independent Slovakia, a Slovakia rid of Benes and Czech Socialists, a Slovakia rid of Communism and all alien domination.

    Dr. Edward Benes and his "National Front" government are responsible for the murder of Dr. Joseph Tiso, first president of the independent Slovak Republic, and most beloved person in Slovakia. The murder of Tiso was the straw that broke the proverbial camel's back. The Slovaks vowed that under no circumstances would they ever voluntarily accept the political monstrosity which is generally known as Czecho-Slovakia. The Slovaks overthrew Magyar hegemony in 1918 and Czech hegemony in 1939; they were forced to become a part of the "renewed" Czecho-Slovakia in 1945 and are kept in it by force, terror and violence.

    The Slovaks do not want anything that is not rightfully theirs: they do not covet the spiritual and material wealth of the Czech nation; they do not make any claims to Czech history, culture, national traditions and customs; they have absolutely no desire for Czech territory; and the Slovaks do not ask or want the Czechs to represent them in any field of endeavor, whether cultural, political or spiritual.

    And, of course, the Slovaks do not want to be credited with the criminal acts committed by the communist-dominated "National Front" government of Dr. Edward Benes and Clement Gottwald. The Slovaks had nothing to do with the criminal expulsion of Germans and Magyars from Czecho-Slovakia, or the brutal persecution and suppression of all anti-communist opposition in that hapless country. For the betrayal of Czecho-Slovakia, the Czech and Slovak nations, to the Communists and the Soviet Union, the Slovaks give full credit to Dr. Edward Benes and his socialist followers — the "Benes Czechs" — who consistently promoted pro-Soviet policy. Furthermore, the Slovaks had no part in the oppression and persecution of anti-communist and non-communist Czechs in Czecho-Slovakia.

    Slovak political and religious leaders did not betray the Czechs, but the Benes Czechs did. The Slovaks recognize and respect the right of the Czech nation to complete freedom and political independence, but the Benes Czechs and their Slovak gauleiters — the apostles of ''Czecho-Slovak" democracy — still insist that the Slovaks do not have the light to be free and politically independent, but
    must continue to be a province or colony of the Czechs, regardless whether those Czechs are Communists, Fascists, or Nazis.

    In America today, the Benes Czechs and their Slovak hirelings, the "Czech'' Slovaks, are organized in the ''Council of Free Czecho-Slovakia," which purports to be an organization of "anti-communist, democratic exiles" from Czecho-Slovakia. It is in fact, however, an organization controlled by the Czech National Socialists and former members of the communist-dominated "National Front"
    government of Dr. Benes and Clement Gottwald, which collaborated with the Soviet Union and outlawed all of the other political parties in Czecho-Slovakia. These "National Fronters" do not represent the political will of the Slovak nation and, therefore, have no
    authority to speak for the Slovaks anywhere. And certainly they do not represent the anti-socialist and anti-communist Czechs. They should be recognized for what they really were in their homeland — promoters of the pro-Soviet policy of the Czech socialists and communists. Under their leadership "Czechoslovak democracy" had no trouble at all in converting to a "people's democracy" after World War II.

    Masaryk, the "philosopher," and Benes, the "statesman," should have known that as long as a Slovak feels Slovak, he cannot accept a plan which would render Slovakia entirely dependent on Bohemia. But they either did not know, or preferred not to recognize and respect this simple truth for obvious reasons.

    The relations between the Czechs and the Slovaks were never worse than they are today. This deteriorated relationship resulted from the anti-Christian, undemocratic and anti-Slovak policies of T. G. Masaryk and Edward Benes and their followers.

    The Slovak nation is no longer interested in a common political State with the Czechs. It rendered its verdict March 14, 1939, with the proclamation of the independent Republic of Slovakia. The Slovaks are for a federation of Central Europe, or even a European, federation, in which all nations would be treated as equals and none would be dominated and exploited by the others.

    The Slovaks are firmly convinced — after their sad experiences of the past three decades — that they can best safeguard their national existence only if they are completely free and independent to rule their own homeland — the territory they inhabited for the past 1500 years. The Slovaks seek the opportunity to play a useful role in the struggle for reborn against all forms of tyranny and
    they believe that it is the responsibility of the free, democratic world to afford them this opportunity.



    States comprised of two or more nations almost always end up with the larger nation behaving patronizing towards the smaller one(s) with the patronizing behaviour eventually ending up as chauvinistic and oppressive, that's why I'm not a fan of such concepts. I thought for most of the time that Czechoslovakia wasn't all that bad, but now I know it better. Thanks for this thread!


    States comprised of two or more nations almost always end up with the larger nation behaving patronizing towards the smaller one(s) with the patronizing behaviour eventually ending up as chauvinistic and oppressive, that's why I'm not a fan of such concepts. I thought for most of the time that Czechoslovakia wasn't all that bad, but now I know it better. Thanks for this thread!

    Those were just my thoughts upon reading this. Well, at least the Czechs and Slovaks had a peaceful Velvet Divorce and not a bloody war like the southern Slavs had to go through. It's a good model for other Slavic nations to follow, respect differences and work toward cooperation.



    Correct rticle, but there is one mistake… Hungarians came to the Carpathian mountains in 896, not the tenth century… Tenth century was the born of the Christian controlled Kingdom of Hungary


    Correct rticle, but there is one mistake… Hungarians came to the Carpathian mountains in 896, not the tenth century… Tenth century was the born of the Christian controlled Kingdom of Hungary

    Author doesn't write about the arrival of Proto-Magyars.

    "After the collapse of the Empire, early in the tenth century, the Slovaks came under the hegemony of the Franks and, later, about the end of the tenth century, under that of Hungary."

    A part of Slovak inhabitants (which also lived much southwards than nowadays) came under the hegemony of Arpad's family line in the end of the 10th century, but the northern parts were not included – those were included later, in the end of the 11th century. The Carpathians run a large area, the year 896 is appropriate for the Carpathians in Romania, not in Slovakia.


    States comprised of two or more nations almost always end up with the larger nation behaving patronizing towards the smaller one(s) with the patronizing behaviour eventually ending up as chauvinistic and oppressive, that's why I'm not a fan of such concepts. I thought for most of the time that Czechoslovakia wasn't all that bad, but now I know it better. Thanks for this thread!

    Communists and liberals idealized the First Czecho-Slovakia (1918-1939), but this was not any democracy, nor fair state. After a long time of monarchy people even didn't know what the democracy is. The system of the First Czecho-Slovakia was full of corruption first of all, e.g. the land reform in Slovakia had to give the grounds to poor Slovaks who wanted to farm and grow vegetables on them, but the Czech, or rather Prague's free-masonic government gave the grounds to their much-favoured persons who were Jewish in many cases. This is why the Slovaks feel such aversion to the so-called Czecho-Slovakia.

    Those were just my thoughts upon reading this. Well, at least the Czechs and Slovaks had a peaceful Velvet Divorce and not a bloody war like the southern Slavs had to go through. It's a good model for other Slavic nations to follow, respect differences and work toward cooperation.

    Yeah, at least.. Czecho-Slovakia was glued together only by the Communist force. After the (managed) collapse of Communism in 1989 The Czech and Slovak Federative Republic arose, but these two countries were not able to stay in the common state any more. Czechs said that the Slovaks slowed down economic development and Slovaks said that the Czechs didn't take care of Moravia and Slovakia. So they splitted up, though Moravians stayed in common state with the Czechs (interesting that there was a petition for joining new Slovakia. Now Moravians are almost definitely Czechised).



    The original article was very bias, there was a lot of history, but conveniently was not mentioned, that Slovakia joined Hitler and became a separate fascist state, while the rest of the country became Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren, a territory of Germany occupied by German army.
    I also object statement, that Czechoslovakia was holding together only by communist state. It is not true, there was much friendship, and many people have both family members and great friends on both sides of the divide. One third of my family lives in Slovakia, and my Slovak brother in law on the other hand lives in Czech republic. There were no national problems between Czech and Slovaks I know of during my 33 years of life in Moravia, we all understood well both languages. Oh TV, for example, the World News were presented by a Czech and Slovak announcer alternatively, one news in Czech, next one in Slovak language, we have watched Slovak movies and listened to their singers, as they listened to ours. The whole Slovak separation was politically motivated by Mr. Meciar & spol., for his own political ambitions, and until this day many of my Slovak friends are telling me, that they regret, that the Slovakia was kidnapped by politicians and torn off from the other half. Together the country was stronger, now both halves are weaker. I was born Czechoslovak, and still consider this to be my nationality, I speak Czech, but play Slovak fujara, and sing Slovak folk songs, and I am frequent guest at Slovak embassy for my performances. We have a saying: If somebody wants to beat a dog, he will find a stick", the original article is very bitter and one sided. It doesn't mention the opposite forces and positive influences between Czechs and Slovaks.
    I was visiting Czechoslovakia at the time of the split, and on New Years's Eve only one half of the Czechoslovak national anthem was played (only the Czech part), and everybody cried, it felt like we were forcibly divorced…..



    From my readings only about 1/3 of both Czechs and Slovaks were in favor of the split at the time ot happened.  Today you can live, work, and travel freely between the two.  If that is true, can anyone tell me what the good and bad of the split has been for the averege Czech and Slovak?  I'm not saying the split was wrong, hut it seems that things didn't really change that much.



    [size=36pt]Pěkná cenzura tady!![/size]



    After the East and the South Slavic controversies, it seems the West started to join in the kolo.



    what censorship hodon??

    cvetinov, i dont see any controversies here… just article of a bitter, complexed man and hodons reactions


    what censorship hodon??

    cvetinov, i dont see any controversies here… just article of a bitter, complexed man and hodons reactions

    because someone delated it…



    You all belong to Slovenijeh! Embrace the future! ;D

    Mary Udovich In Josephine Lausche- Zvedel Sem Nekaj Novega


    Pěkná cenzura tady!!

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    Thank you Svatoslava for this text. I had no idea that situation in Czechoslovakia was such. 2 or more nations should never be forced to exist in the same state because the consequences are always going to be as described in the text. I can understand authors point of view.

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