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  • #344033

    Anonymous

    Samuel[1] (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian: Самуил, pronounced [samuˈil]) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014. From 980[2] to 997, he was a general under Roman I of Bulgaria, the second surviving son of Emperor Peter I of Bulgaria, and co-ruled with him, as Roman bestowed upon him the command of the army and the effective royal authority.[3] As Samuel struggled to preserve his country's independence from the Byzantine Empire, his rule was characterized by constant warfare against the Byzantines and their equally ambitious ruler Basil II.

    In his early years Samuel managed to inflict several major defeats on the Byzantines and to launch offensive campaigns into their territory.[4] In the late 10th century, the Bulgarian armies conquered the Serb principality of Duklja[5] and led campaigns against the Kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary. But from 1001, he was forced mainly to defend the Empire against the superior Byzantine armies. Samuel died of a heart attack on 6 October 1014, two months after the catastrophic battle of Kleidion, and Bulgaria was fully subjugated by Basil II four years later, ending the five decades-long Byzantine–Bulgarian conflict.[6]

    Samuel was considered "invincible in power and unsurpassable in strength".[7][8] Similar comments were made even in Constantinople, where John Kyriotes Geometres penned a poem offering a punning comparison between the Bulgarian Emperor and a comet which appeared in 989.[9][10]

    During Samuel's reign, Bulgaria gained control of most of the Balkans (with the notable exception of Thrace) as far as southern Greece. He moved the capital from Skopje to Ohrid,[4][11] which had been the cultural and military centre of southwestern Bulgaria since Boris I's rule,[12] and made the city the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Because of that, sometimes his realm is called Western Bulgarian Kingdom or Western Bulgarian Empire.[13][14]

    Although Samuel's reign brought the end of the First Bulgarian Empire, he is regarded as a heroic ruler in Bulgaria.[15][16]

    Samuil's Bulgarian Empire:

    image

    Samuil's fortress:

    image

    Church where Samuil's tomb was found:

    image

    #395874

    Anonymous

    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    "True, the powerful, but short-lived empire of Tsar Samuil (969–1018) centered in Macedonia under a largely domestic ruling elite. This ‘‘Macedonian kingdom,’’ as the great Byzantologist Ostrogorsky refers to it, ‘‘was essentially different from the former kingdom of the Bulgars. In composition and character, it represented a new and distinctive phenomenon. The balance had shifted toward the west and south, and Macedonia, a peripheral region in the old Bulgarian kingdom, was its real center.’’ However, for reasons of political and ecclesiastical legitimacy, crucial in the Middle Ages, Samuil and the Byzantines thought it part of the Bulgarian empire, and so it carried the Bulgarian name. Consequently, in almost all of the Middle Ages Macedonia and its Slavic inhabitants belonged to one or another of three dynastic or territorial states of the Byzantine Commonwealth—Bulgaria, Byzantium, and Serbia.

    That the medieval Macedonian Slavs, like many other European peoples, did not establish a long-lasting, independent, eponymous political entity became significant much later, in the age of nationalism and national mythologies. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such romantic ideologies sought to explain—to legitimize or to deny—national identities, aims, and programs by linking present and past. Bulgarian, Greek, and Serbian nationalists justified their modern nations’ existence and their imperialistic ambitions—including their claims to Macedonia—by identifying their small, ethnically based states with the territorial, dynastic empires of the Middle Ages.”

    #395875

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    "True, the powerful, but short-lived empire of Tsar Samuil (969–1018) centered in Macedonia under a largely domestic ruling elite. This ‘‘Macedonian kingdom,’’ as the great Byzantologist Ostrogorsky refers to it, ‘‘was essentially different from the former kingdom of the Bulgars. In composition and character, it represented a new and distinctive phenomenon. The balance had shifted toward the west and south, and Macedonia, a peripheral region in the old Bulgarian kingdom, was its real center.’’ However, for reasons of political and ecclesiastical legitimacy, crucial in the Middle Ages, Samuil and the Byzantines thought it part of the Bulgarian empire, and so it carried the Bulgarian name. Consequently, in almost all of the Middle Ages Macedonia and its Slavic inhabitants belonged to one or another of three dynastic or territorial states of the Byzantine Commonwealth—Bulgaria, Byzantium, and Serbia.

    That the medieval Macedonian Slavs, like many other European peoples, did not establish a long-lasting, independent, eponymous political entity became significant much later, in the age of nationalism and national mythologies. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such romantic ideologies sought to explain—to legitimize or to deny—national identities, aims, and programs by linking present and past. Bulgarian, Greek, and Serbian nationalists justified their modern nations’ existence and their imperialistic ambitions—including their claims to Macedonia—by identifying their small, ethnically based states with the territorial, dynastic empires of the Middle Ages.”

    What the above quote is basically saying is that the region of Macedonia was never a distinct political entity during the middle ages.
    This is why modern Macedonia has to "borrow" its identity from antiquity. Funny thing is, so does Greece, but for a slightly different reason. In contrast to the Rep. of Macedonia though, Greece actually has a claim of continuity from the ancient city states to the present nation.

    #395876

    Anonymous

    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    " Macedonian Slavs occupied most of the land and absorbed the native inhabitants; by the early ninth century, Byzantium reasserted control. Second, in the mid–ninth century, Macedonia became part of the Bulgarian empire. Third, about 971, Tsar Samuil created a Macedonian empire, though with traditional Bulgarian titles, and it lasted until 1018. Fourth, Macedonian Slavs adopted Christianity, and their culture became a cradle of Slav Orthodoxy. Fifth, in the four centuries or so after 1018, a number of powers ruled Macedonia: Byzantium again to the 1070s, and thereafter variously Bulgaria, Epirus, the Normans, Serbia, and others, until the Ottoman conquest about 1400.”

    #395877

    Anonymous

    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    “Although Macedonia figured prominently in history, it remained a little-known land, virtual terra incognita, until the nineteenth century. To be sure, the battles and conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedonia had become legendary, but after the Romans conquered the last parts of ancient Macedonia in 168 bc the Macedonian name disappeared from the historical stage and consciousness. It became merely a geographical expression describing a disputed territory of indeterminate boundaries, which passed under the sovereignty of ambitious medieval Balkan dynastic and territorial states—especially Bulgaria, Byzantium, and Serbia. Briefly in the early eleventh century, Macedonia became the center of the most dominant Balkan state. However, Tsar Samuil, the native ruler of this ‘‘Macedonian kingdom’’ (George Ostrogorsky’s label for it) and its ruling elite continued, for reasons of legitimacy, to call the state ‘Bulgaria.’ During centuries of Ottoman rule, authorities never used the Macedonian name even for administrative purposes. A state took the appellation only in the mid-1940s, when Vardar (Serbian/Yugoslav) Macedonia—as the People’s Republic of Macedonia (and later the Socialist Republic of Macedonia)—became a constituent of the Communist Yugoslav federation. After the collapse of federal Yugoslavia in 1991, it declared its complete sovereignty and independence as the republic of Macedonia.”

    #395878

    Anonymous

    Wow that's an excellent preservation of the Old Bulgarian fortress. Could we say that's the best preserved Medieval South-Slavic structure standing today?

    #395879

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Wow that's an excellent preservation of the Old Bulgarian fortress. Could we say that's the best preserved Medieval South-Slavic structure standing today?

    Its a restoration, but nevertheless an authentic one, gives you great view on the whole lake and the surrounding mountains(who went there knows what I talk about)

    #395880

    Anonymous

    VelikiAgrus, please don't post Diko Roshovski's (Rossos' real name) trash in this thread.

    #395881

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    VelikiAgrus, please don't post Diko Roshovski's (Rossos' real name) trash in this thread.

    Crni Trayko now you are historian posting Wikipedia. Take the advantage of learning history!!!!!

    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    #395882

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Wow that's an excellent preservation of the Old Bulgarian fortress. Could we say that's the best preserved Medieval South-Slavic structure standing today?

    Find Bulgarian fortress in Bulgaria that is Macedonian Slavic not Bulgar.

    #395883

    Anonymous
    #395884

    Anonymous

    Tsarevets

    image

    Asenova fortress
    image

    Shumen

    image

    Those 3 Macedonian ???
    You macedonians even don't  know how to fight  against the shiptars  , and you are  saying about your own fortress ?
    Very stupid  ;D

    #395885

    Anonymous
    Quote:
    Crni Trayko now you are historian posting Wikipedia. Take the advantage of learning history!!!!!

    MACEDONIA
    AND THE
    MACEDONIANS
    A History
    Andrew Rossos
    HOOVER INSTITUTION PRESS
    Stanford University
    Stanford, California

    And "c'mon"… you're posting quotes from an extremely confused Macedonist with a political agenda. He basically constructed a history… not telling it. But do ask yourself this question… why was Basil II called Basil the Bulgarslayer not Macedonian-slayer? :D

    #395886

    Anonymous

    One more thing that should be considered as proof against Macedonist lies. The Bitola inscription.

    The Bitola inscription is a medieval stone inscription written in Old Bulgarian during the Ivan Vladislav's reign. He is titled "autocrat of the Bulgarians", "born Bulgarian" and notes that he renewed the fortress of Bitola for "a salvation and sanctuary of the Bulgarians".

    image

    #395887

    Anonymous
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