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    Rough estimation about ancestry of Europeans has been surmised long time ago but recent data appears to show we Europeans are primarily product of three ancient groups. The original hunter gatherer population, near eastern farmers and last but not the least north eastern pastorals. Naturally different regions of Europe have different proportions of the three groups.


    In a very simplified picture, the research seems to indicate we got blue eye genes from hunters, paler skin from farmers and language & much of the culture from pastorals. It might initially come to a surprise but the blue eyed hunters had dark complexion while the dark eyed farmers were light skinned. From what i understand is that hunter diet allowed them to get enough vitamin D so they needed not to develop light skin. Whilst the farmers from near east had heavy grain based diet and lacked vitamin D so the developed lighter skin. Here i don’t mean “yogurt” skin many of us now have because ofc. near east has quite a lot of sun.

    This is a facial reconstruction of a hunter gatherer found in Spain.


    On the other hand the pastorals which ofc. as many of you probably already guessed are Proto-Indo-European peoples. They were genetically tall, overwhelmingly dark eyed,
    dark haired and had a skin color that was moderately light, though
    somewhat darker than that of the average modern European. These were the people of the wheel using wagons and domesticating horses. Most languages of Europe ofc. stem from these peoples.

    An example of late PIE Yamnaya faces;



    Modern Europeans appear to have varied distribution of the three groups on a regional level;


    When near east farmers started to arrive we see an interesting pattern. It appears that farmers were more willing to mix with hunters the further north they went. Whilst in southern regions they more of replaced them. I am talking this in relative terms. Which might explain why south Europe tend to have higher near eastern farmer substrate. One possible explanation might be that farmers further north faced difficulties in surviving due to harsher climate.

    On the other hand research seem to suggest that the PIE pastorals were predominately males & married a lot with women from farmer group. Pastorals ate lots of meat, dairy products and fish making them much healthier and tall.. Because pastorals were the last to arrive the farmers in this context are already both the near east farmer and the native ex-hunter farmer populations. So the farmers that pastorals were mixing with were composed of both previous groups. Meaning by this time we can’t talk of farmers as near eastern descent only. Out of this a Corded Ware culture was born. The native farmers buried their dead in communal megalith chambers whilst the pastorals buried individually in family barrows.

    Anyways here is some more info about this;

    There was a decline in agrarian Stone Age societies once the Yamnaya
    people started migrating to the new continent, which allowed for more
    people to settle in the communities.

    However, researchers have suggested in the
    past that the decline was probably the result of a widespread plague
    from Siberia to the Baltic.

    disease dynamic here may have been comparable to the European
    colonization process in America after Christopher Columbus’, said

    ‘Perhaps Yamnaya brought plague to Europe and caused a massive collapse in the population’.

    Kristiansen’s last work, he and his colleagues argue for a dominance of
    males during the early phase after the migrations, and correspond to
    the old Indo-European mythology of later times.

    evidence has suggested that there was a war-band of youths known as
    ‘Black Youth’ who were employed in pioneer migrations as a dynamic

    Evidence from strontium isotopic
    analyses, published in 2016 by Kristiansen together with Douglas Price
    and Karl Goran Sjogren, showed that a majority of the women in Corded
    Ware burials in south Germany were non-locals who had married in from
    Neolithic societies, since they had a Neolithic diet in their childhood.

    And these results now form part of the new synthesis.

    archaeological evidence of a strong 90% male dominance in the early
    phase of the Corded Ware/Single Grave Culture settlement in Jutland,
    Denmark, and elsewhere can now be explained by the old Indo-European
    tradition of war bands of young males who did not have any inheritance
    to look forward to.’

    ‘Therefore they were probably more willing to make a career as migrating war bands.’

    Neolithic women also had the skill of pottery production and created
    imitate pottery containers from the wood brought by the Yamnaya

    This new type of pottery culture was deemed Corded Ware, because of the cord impressions around the neck of the pots.

    pots were specifically made to drink beer from and the new migrants
    also learned how to grow barley from the in-married Neolithic women in
    order to produce beer.

    Eske Willerslev undertook the ancient DNA analyses together with Morten Allentoft and Martin Sikora. Professor Willerslev said:

    our big Bronze Age study, published in 2015 we were astonished to see
    how strong and fast the genetic changeover was from the Neolithic to the
    Corded Ware.’

    was a heavy reduction of Neolithic DNA in temperate Europe, and a
    dramatic increase of the new Yamnaya genomic component that was only
    marginally present in Europe prior to 3000 BC.



    The pots were specifically made to drink beer from and the new migrants also learned how to grow barley from the in-married Neolithic women in order to produce beer.

    …and Eastern European culture was born. :D



    Those farmer women conspired against our pastoral male ancestors. They made us weak thru their knowledge of fermentation.

    Jokes aside, fun fact In middle age and especially before that brewing was often in the hands of women. XD

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