Nature of Crimea

The Crimean peninsula, is located in the south of Ukraine and has an area of ​​only 26 thousand square kilometers, at the same time is truly a natural treasure. It’s hard to name a place that could compare with it the variety and picturesque nature.
Museum of natural Crimea made ​​it remarkable geographical location, geological history, topography. The peninsula is located at an equal distance from the North Pole and the Equator. Crimean Mountains, which are part of the Alpine folded region that stretches across the southern part of Eurasia, the peninsula is divided into two unequal parts. Much, northern part of the peninsula is located in the extreme south of the temperate zone, and the southern – Crimean suberedizemnomore – refers to the northern edge of the subtropical zone .

Nature of Crimea

In this regard, the sunshine in the Crimea duration and intensity. At the same time, there are significant differences in climates and within the peninsula, which are primarily related to the barrier role of the main ridge of the mountains and the Black Sea, is tempered by winter frosts and hot weather in the summer (especially on the coast). Main Ridge Mountains causes the difference here circulating air masses uneven heating of the air and the sun, especially in the northern and southern slopes of the mountains. For this reason, the most striking features of the sub-Mediterranean type of climate and nature in general appear at the bottom of the southern slopes of Crimean mountains of Cape Aya to Mount Karadag, known as the Southern coast of the Crimea. Particularly those conditions between distinct settlements Simeiz and Fishing, where Main Ridge Mountains reaches its greatest heights. It is this part of the Crimea is famous for the most favorable combination of warm sea and picturesque mountains, healthy climate and variety of natural components. flora of Crimea is rich and interesting. Ingredients only wild plants is higher than 65% of the flora throughout the European part of the CIS. Along with this there are cultivated about 1,000 species of alien plants. Almost all the flora of the Crimea is concentrated in the southern highlands. That’s where the true museum floristic diversity! terrain, climate, vegetation and other natural components of the individual parts of the Crimea, natural and uniquely combining and interacting to form a wide variety of landscapes. Calm kinds of gray tones evoke a low contrast of landscapes Sivash. Pride in the creative work of people in the cause of the Crimean steppe crisp squares of fields, vineyards, gardens, bordered by forest belts, straight waterways of the North Crimean Canal, white stone building renovated villages. major mood arises in the form of landscapes of the mountain area and its beautiful mountains and valleys, shady, deep canyons and sheer rock cliffs, huge ovals igneous landforms and steep coastal slopes yaylinskih expanse of green meadows and sloping forests. Landscapes of Crimea, especially the mountainous part, due to its comfortable climate, clean air, saturated with negative ions, sea salt, sweet smells, the intoxicating aroma of the plant – and have a large health-force. And the bowels of the earth contain curative mud and mineral water.
Belt pine forests
Crimea.  Belt pine forests
Belt pine forest begins almost on the jajle, and its lower limit is at an altitude of 300-400 m above sea level.
In some places on the southern slopes of beech leaves, which, as it is stepping up its stands of pine belt. in Crimea pine forests form Crimean pine and common. Both species often grow together, even though their environmental optima do not coincide. Crimean pine (temnokoraya, with long stiff needles) a thermophilic, it is predominant in the lower and middle parts of the belt, where it occurs together with a fluffy oak. higher to jajle, there is less common Crimean pine, and at the upper limit of pine forest, it disappears, replaced by more cold resistant krasnokoroy Scots pine. However, in priyaylinskoy area, as well as the most jajle where pine forests are shaped by strong winds, snow, ozheledey, Scots pine has an ugly shape of the trunk and the crown. In general, the best conditions for their growth Crimean pine is in the middle of the slope, at an altitude of 700-800 m above sea level, and Scots pine – at an altitude of 800-900 m above sea level.
Beech forests of the Crimea
Beech forests of the Crimea
At an altitude of 600-700 m above sea level zone of oak forest gives way to beech forests. This 200-250-year-old tree stand, affecting its pristine strength, strong, somewhat sullen beauty. In a ground space in the beech forest as a lived-old park, neither of young plants going to replace the old people, no scrub, just smooth ash-gray stems, sometimes thick girth 2-3, on which crawl on the earth by powerful gnarled roots resembling a huge octopus.  Not even a grass cover, except occasionally encountered stems of milkweed or woodruff that are completely lost on the brown background of last year’s fallen leaves. But high above columnar beech logs topped thick-cap crown, why even in the beech forest on a hot sunny day, cool and dim. upper limit of the beech belt passes right by the plateau, at an altitude of 1200-1300 meters above sea level. Productivity of forest stands is not the same throughout the vertical extent. In the lower part of the belt rainfall of 600-700 mm, which is not enough for beech, which requires moist coastal climate. Therefore, it is almost never forms pure stands, brought forth in a mixture with hornbeam, linden, maple, oak less. Its ecological optimum – the most favorable conditions – beech is at an altitude of 900-1000 m above sea level, where rainfall is 1000 mm, and sometimes more. It is often found in trees 2-3 girth thickness and about 30 m in height. But as we approach the treeless space beech gradually loses its greatness, and on the border with jajloj he did and presented stunted gnarled trees growing often in groups.upper limit of beech forest, usually breaks off abruptly, without transition, and beyond it soon begins to pay – a hilly, with whitish limestone outcrops and swallow holes, then smooth as a Central Russian steppe. Crimean plateau as forests play a huge role in the water balance of the peninsula. Dropping out here rain and spring melt waters fall into sinkholes, cracks, caves and, after passing through the thickness of rocks, pinch out on the slopes, giving rise to streams and rivers.

Oak forests of Crimea
Oak forests of Crimea
Oak forests – the most common in the Crimea forest formation, which occupies more than 60% of the forested area.
They consist of sessile oak and fluffy, hornbeam, linden, ash, birch and hornbeam shrub layer creates, dogwood, hazel, spindle tree, sumac.
these forests are not highly productive. Before the revolution, oak heavily exploited by private owners: used clearcuts, and cut down the oak tree in the 40 – 50 years, based on the resumption of coppicing. As a result, long-term reproduction through coppice and soil degradation due to their frequent nudity, these forests have become stunted and short-lived. However, the saddest consequence of the immoderate use of the peninsula was the reduction of forest cover, which in turn led to the development in the mountainous region of erosion and disturbance of the water regime of rivers.
The forest-steppe zone of Crimea
The forest-steppe zone of Crimea
The forest-steppe zone covers the foothills with elevations from 150-200 to 300-350 m above sea level. Natural vegetation in the foothills also greatly altered by humans. The predominant part of the land is plowed and used for crops, orchards and vineyards. According to surviving fragments of pristine land can be concluded that in the past the Crimean foothills were occupied meadow steppes, which are interrupted by small patches of shrubs and trees.Meadow steppes, in contrast to the present, have in their composition, except grasses and fescue grasses characteristic of grassland: the coastal fire, meadow bluegrass, hedgehog, bearded wheatgrass, etc. And in the trees and scrub oak are common furry, pear loholistnaya , hornbeam, derzhiderevo.
Above the forest steppe zone lies belt of forest vegetation, oak and beech forests. Forest in the Crimea play a huge water protection, water regulation and erosion control role, the main sources of water are the small rivers and streams originating on the slopes of the mountains in the shadow of the oak, beech, pine forests rarely. Concluding a brief description of the vegetation of the peninsula, we must not forget the need for careful her attitude. Already, scientists are commanded to offer more than 300 kinds of Crimean plants, and more than 20 of them are classified as endangered or possibly extinct. I would like to name those species which are most often destroyed by man: orchids (Orchis Liubka), crocus (golden and beautiful), peonies (and fine-leaved forest), adonis spring, snowdrop folded, zubyanka pyatilistnaya, backache (sleep-grass). Arriving in Crimea sanatorium voucher or as a tourist, you should remember that the unique nature of the peninsula is experiencing great pressure from holidaymakers. So be BEREZHNYI with plants, do not pick flowers: they may turn out to be individuals of such species that are on the verge of extinction. Crimean nature, including flora, unique in its charm, and its safety will depend on our handling.

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