Shapka (Fr. chape from Lat. Cappa – headdress) – the traditional headdress of the Russian national costume, famous from the time X century. Shapka had a round cone-shaped crown height is about 31 cm and a round fur down with 9 cm in height. The top crown was sometimes bending to its back. At the front of the cap (and sometimes in the back) made the cut, which was called “proreha”. those hats were widespread in all strata of society, and subsequently all headwear cap began to be called “shapka”.
Shapka gorlatnaya – fur (male and female) headdress of the Russian nobility XV – XVII centuries, growing up cylinder with a velvet or brocade top. Hats were trimmed with fox, marten or sable fur. The fur was taken from necks, hence the name, “gorlo” means “neck” in Russian.
Stolbunets and Stolbun – stand-up or high, some tapering upwards cap with fur edging or with the shelves, and different decorations.
The kings wore fur hats, decorated with precious stones, the most famous among them is The Crown of Monomakh:
Nauruz – men hat in-kind cap with shelves (fields), square, tear, buttons and tassels.
The usual people wore winter sheepskin hats of different styles – malakhai and treukhi. Malakhai had four blades, two of them covered his forehead and neck, and the other two – the ears and cheeks, they were long and could be wrapped around the neck, tying at the back. Treukhi – “three ear,” resembled a modern hat-ushanka with movable tail.
The most popular fur hat in modern Russia is “ushanka“, cap with earflaps. This hat is descended from the Scythians similar headgear:
The prototype of ushanka was a “cap-kolchakovka”, which is widely used in the White armies of Kolchak in 1918-1919. Later, the fashion for fur cap with a round crown is distributed among the workers of St. Petersburg, and then across Russia.
Now it’s one of the most common stereotypes about Russia with bears and vodka, the souvenir, used in Russian armed forces:
There exist many kinds of ushankas, with different structure, type of fur and skin..